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400 metres


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/400_metres
Updated: 2017-09-09T18:38Z
Athletics
400 metres
File:400m CIF San Diego Championship 2007.jpg
The closing stages of a men's 400 m race
Men's records
World23x15px Wayde van Niekerk 43.03 (2016)
Olympic23x15px Wayde van Niekerk 43.03 (2016)
Women's records
World23x15px Marita Koch 47.60 (1985)
OlympicFrance Marie-José Pérec 48.25 (1996)

The 400 metres, or 400 metre dash, is a common sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1964 for women. On a standard outdoor running track, it is one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes previously competed in the 440 yard dash (402.336 m)—which is a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the 'quarter-mile'—instead of the 400 m (437.445 yards), though this distance is now obsolete. An athlete who competes in the 400 m may still be referred to as 'quarter-miler'; the distance or event might still be called the "quarter."[citation needed]

Maximum sprint speed capability is a significant contributing factor to success in the event, but athletes also require substantial speed endurance and the ability to cope well with high amounts of lactic acid to sustain a fast speed over a whole lap. While considered to be predominantly an anaerobic event, there is some aerobic involvement and the degree of aerobic training required for 400 metre athletes is open to debate.[1]

The current men's world record is held by Wayde van Niekerk, with a time of 43.03 seconds; van Niekerk is also the reigning world and Olympic champion. The world indoor record holder is Kerron Clement, in 44.57 seconds. The current women's world record is held by Marita Koch, with a time of 47.60 seconds. Phyllis Francis is the reigning women's world champion, while Shaunae Miller holds the women's Olympic title. The men's T43 (classification) Paralympic world record of 45.07 seconds is held by Oscar Pistorius.[2]

An Olympic double of 200 metres and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, and later by Michael Johnson from the United States and Marie-José Pérec of France both in 1996. Alberto Juantorena of Cuba at the 1976 Summer Olympics became the first and so far the only athlete to win both the 400 m and 800 m Olympic titles.

The Olympic champion has frequently won a second gold medal in the 4 × 400 metres relay. This has been accomplished 14 times by men; Charles Reidpath, Ray Barbuti, Bill Carr, George Rhoden, Charles Jenkins, Otis Davis, Mike Larrabee, Lee Evans, Viktor Markin, Alonzo Babers, Steve Lewis, Quincy Watts, Jeremy Wariner and LaShawn Merritt; and 4 times by women; Monika Zehrt, Valerie Brisco-Hooks, Olga Bryzgina and Sanya Richards-Ross.

From 31 appearances in the Olympic Games, the men's gold medallist came from the USA 19 times.

Continental records

Area Men Women
Time (s) Athlete Nation Time (s) Athlete Nation
Africa (records) 43.03 WR Wayde van Niekerk 23x15px South Africa 49.10 Falilat Ogunkoya 23x15px Nigeria
Asia (records) 43.93 Yousef Ahmed Masrahi 23x15px Saudi Arabia 49.81 Ma Yuqin 23x15px China
Europe (records) 44.33 Thomas Schönlebe 23x15px East Germany 47.60 WR Marita Koch 23x15px East Germany
North, Central America
and Caribbean
(records)
43.18 Michael Johnson  United States 48.70 Sanya Richards  United States
Oceania (records) 44.38 Darren Clark  Australia 48.63 Cathy Freeman  Australia
South America (records) 44.29 Sanderlei Parrela  Brazil 49.64 Ximena Restrepo 23x15px Colombia

All-time top 25

  • A = affected by altitude

Men

  • Correct as of August 2017.[3]
RankTimeAthleteNationDateLocationRef
143.03Wayde van Niekerk23x15px South Africa14 August 2016Rio de Janeiro[4]
2 43.18 Michael Johnson  United States 26 August 1999 Seville
3 43.29 Harry 'Butch' Reynolds  United States 17 August 1988 Zürich
4 43.45 Jeremy Wariner  United States 31 August 2007 Osaka
5 43.50 Quincy Watts  United States 5 August 1992 Barcelona
643.65LaShawn Merritt United States26 August 2015Beijing[5]
743.70Fred Kerley United States26 May 2017Austin[6]
843.72Isaac Makwala23x15px Botswana5 July 2015La Chaux-de-Fonds[7]
943.74Kirani James23x15px Grenada3 July 2014Lausanne[8]
10 43.81 Danny Everett  United States 26 June 1992 New Orleans
11 43.86 A Lee Evans  United States 18 October 1968 Mexico City
12 43.87 Steve Lewis  United States 28 September 1988 Seoul
1343.89Steven Gardiner23x15px Bahamas6 August 2017London[9]
1443.93Yousef Ahmed Masrahi23x15px Saudi Arabia23 August 2015Beijing[10]
Rusheen McDonald23x15px Jamaica23 August 2015Beijing[11]
16 43.97 A Larry James  United States 18 October 1968 Mexico City
1744.01Machel Cedenio23x15px Trinidad and Tobago14 August 2016Rio de Janeiro[12]
1844.02Baboloki Thebe23x15px Botswana6 July 2017Lausanne[13]
19 44.05 Angelo Taylor  United States 23 June 2007 Indianapolis
2044.09 Alvin Harrison  United States 19 June 1996 Atlanta
Jerome Young  United States 21 June 1998 New Orleans
2244.10 Gary Kikaya 23x15px Democratic Republic of the Congo 9 September 2006 Stuttgart
2344.11Luguelín Santos23x15px Dominican Republic26 August 2015Beijing[14]
24 44.13 Derek Mills  United States 4 June 1995 Eugene
25 44.14 Roberto Hernandez 23x15px Cuba 30 May 1990 Seville

Notes

Below is a list of all other times equal or superior to 43.84:

Women

  • Correct as of November 2016.[15]
Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 47.60 Marita Koch 23x15px East Germany 6 October 1985 Canberra
2 47.99 Jarmila Kratochvílová 23x15px Czechoslovakia 10 August 1983 Helsinki
3 48.25 Marie-José Pérec  France 29 July 1996 Atlanta
4 48.27 Olga Vladykina 23x15px Soviet Union 6 October 1985 Canberra
5 48.59 Taťána Kocembová 23x15px Czechoslovakia 10 August 1983 Helsinki
6 48.63 Cathy Freeman  Australia 29 July 1996 Atlanta
7 48.70 Sanya Richards  United States 16 September 2006 Athens
8 48.83 Valerie Brisco-Hooks  United States 6 August 1984 Los Angeles
9 48.89 Ana Guevara 23x15px Mexico 27 August 2003 Paris Saint-Denis
10 49.05 Chandra Cheeseborough  United States 6 August 1984 Los Angeles
11 49.07 Tonique Williams-Darling 23x15px Bahamas 12 September 2004 Berlin
12 49.10 Falilat Ogunkoya 23x15px Nigeria 29 July 1996 Atlanta
13 49.11 Olga Nazarova 23x15px Soviet Union 25 September 1988 Seoul
14 49.16 Antonina Krivoshapka  Russia 5 July 2012 Cheboksary
15 49.19 Mariya Pinigina 23x15px Soviet Union 10 August 1983 Helsinki
16 49.24 Sabine Busch 23x15px East Germany June 1984 Erfurt
17 49.26 Allyson Felix  United States 27 August 2015 Beijing [16]
1849.28 Irena Szewinska  Poland 29 July 1976 Montreal
Pauline Davis 23x15px Bahamas 29 July 1996 Atlanta
Yuliya Gushchina  Russia 5 July 2012 Cheboksary
21 49.29 Charity Opara 23x15px Nigeria 14 July 1998 Rome
22 49.30 Petra Muller 23x15px East Germany 3 June 1988 Jena
Lorraine Fenton 23x15px Jamaica 19 July 2002 Monaco
24 49.32 Shericka Williams 23x15px Jamaica 18 August 2009 Berlin
25 49.33 Amantle Montsho 23x15px Botswana 19 July 2013 Monaco

Notes

Below is a list of all other times superior to 48.80:

Fastest relay splits

Most successful athletes

Multiple (3 or more) 400 metres victories at the Olympic Games and World Championships:

  • 6 wins: Michael Johnson (USA) - Olympic Champion in 1996 and 2000, World Champion in 1993, 1995, 1997 and 1999.
  • 4 wins: Marie-Jose Perec (FRA) - Olympic Champion in 1992 and 1996, World Champion in 1991 and 1995.
  • 3 wins: Cathy Freeman (AUS) - Olympic Champion in 2000, World Champion in 1997 and 1999
  • 3 wins: Jeremy Wariner (USA) - Olympic Champion in 2004, World Champion in 2005 and 2007.
  • 3 wins: Christine Ohuruogu (GBR) - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2007 and 2013.
  • 3 wins: LaShawn Merritt (USA) - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2009 and 2013.
  • 3 wins: Wayde van Niekerk (RSA) - Olympic Champion in 2016, World Champion in 2015 and 2017.

Olympic medalists

Men

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
22x20px Thomas Burke (USA)22x20px Herbert Jamison (USA) Charles Gmelin (GBR)
1900 Paris
details
22x20px Maxie Long (USA)22x20px William Holland (USA)22x20px Ernst Schultz (DEN)
1904 St. Louis
details
22x20px Harry Hillman (USA)22x20px Frank Waller (USA)22x20px Herman Groman (USA)
1908 London
details
 Wyndham Halswelle (GBR)None awardedNone awarded
1912 Stockholm
details
22x20px Charles Reidpath (USA)22x20px Hanns Braun (GER)22x20px Edward Lindberg (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
22x20px Bevil Rudd (RSA) Guy Butler (GBR) Nils Engdahl (SWE)
1924 Paris
details
 Eric Liddell (GBR)22x20px Horatio Fitch (USA) Guy Butler (GBR)
1928 Amsterdam
details
22x20px Ray Barbuti (USA)22x20px James Ball (CAN)22x20px Joachim Büchner (GER)
1932 Los Angeles
details
22x20px Bill Carr (USA)22x20px Ben Eastman (USA)22x20px Alex Wilson (CAN)
1936 Berlin
details
22x20px Archie Williams (USA) Godfrey Brown (GBR)22x20px James LuValle (USA)
1948 London
details
22x20px Arthur Wint (JAM)22x20px Herb McKenley (JAM)22x20px Mal Whitfield (USA)
1952 Helsinki
details
22x20px George Rhoden (JAM)22x20px Herb McKenley (JAM)22x20px Ollie Matson (USA)
1956 Melbourne
details
22x20px Charles Jenkins (USA) Karl-Friedrich Haas (EUA)22x20px Voitto Hellstén (FIN)
22x20px Ardalion Ignatyev (URS)
1960 Rome
details
22x20px Otis Davis (USA)22x20px Carl Kaufmann (EUA)22x20px Malcolm Spence (RSA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Mike Larrabee (USA)22x20px Wendell Mottley (TRI)22x20px Andrzej Badeński (POL)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Lee Evans (USA) Larry James (USA) Ron Freeman (USA)
1972 Munich
details
 Vincent Matthews (USA) Wayne Collett (USA)22x20px Julius Sang (KEN)
1976 Montreal
details
22x20px Alberto Juantorena (CUB) Fred Newhouse (USA) Herman Frazier (USA)
1980 Moscow
details
22x20px Viktor Markin (URS)22x20px Rick Mitchell (AUS)22x20px Frank Schaffer (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Alonzo Babers (USA)22x20px Gabriel Tiacoh (CIV) Antonio McKay (USA)
1988 Seoul
details
 Steve Lewis (USA) Butch Reynolds (USA) Danny Everett (USA)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Quincy Watts (USA) Steve Lewis (USA)22x20px Samson Kitur (KEN)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Michael Johnson (USA) Roger Black (GBR)22x20px Davis Kamoga (UGA)
2000 Sydney
details
 Michael Johnson (USA) Alvin Harrison (USA)22x20px Greg Haughton (JAM)
2004 Athens
details
 Jeremy Wariner (USA) Otis Harris (USA) Derrick Brew (USA)
2008 Beijing
details
 LaShawn Merritt (USA) Jeremy Wariner (USA) David Neville (USA)
2012 London
details
22x20px Kirani James (GRN) 22x20px Luguelín Santos (DOM) 22x20px Lalonde Gordon (TRI)
2016 Rio
details
22x20px Wayde van Niekerk (RSA) 22x20px Kirani James (GRN)  LaShawn Merritt (USA)

Women

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1964 Tokyo
details
 Betty Cuthbert (AUS) Ann Packer (GBR) Judy Amoore (AUS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Colette Besson (FRA) Lillian Board (GBR)22x20px Natalya Pechonkina (URS)
1972 Munich
details
22x20px Monika Zehrt (GDR) Rita Wilden (FRG) Kathy Hammond (USA)
1976 Montreal
details
22x20px Irena Szewińska (POL)22x20px Christina Brehmer (GDR)22x20px Ellen Streidt (GDR)
1980 Moscow
details
22x20px Marita Koch (GDR)22x20px Jarmila Kratochvílová (TCH)22x20px Christina Lathan (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Valerie Brisco-Hooks (USA) Chandra Cheeseborough (USA) Kathy Smallwood-Cook (GBR)
1988 Seoul
details
22x20px Olga Bryzgina (URS)22x20px Petra Müller (GDR)22x20px Olga Nazarova (URS)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Marie-José Pérec (FRA)22x20px Olga Bryzgina (EUN)22x20px Ximena Restrepo (COL)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Marie-José Pérec (FRA) Cathy Freeman (AUS)22x20px Falilat Ogunkoya (NGR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Cathy Freeman (AUS)22x20px Lorraine Graham (JAM) Katharine Merry (GBR)
2004 Athens
details
22x20px Tonique Williams-Darling (BAH)22x20px Ana Guevara (MEX) Natalya Antyukh (RUS)
2008 Beijing
details
 Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)22x20px Shericka Williams (JAM) Sanya Richards (USA)
2012 London
details
 Sanya Richards-Ross (USA)  Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)  DeeDee Trotter (USA)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
22x20px Shaunae Miller (BAH)  Allyson Felix (USA) 22x20px Shericka Jackson (JAM)

World Championships medalists

Men

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
23x15px Bert Cameron (JAM) Michael Franks (USA) Sunder Nix (USA)
1987 Rome
details
23x15px Thomas Schönlebe (GDR)23x15px Innocent Egbunike (NIG) Harry Reynolds (USA)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Antonio Pettigrew (USA) Roger Black (GBR) Danny Everett (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Michael Johnson (USA) Butch Reynolds (USA)23x15px Samson Kitur (KEN)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Michael Johnson (USA) Butch Reynolds (USA)23x15px Greg Haughton (JAM)
1997 Athens
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)23x15px Davis Kamoga (UGA) Tyree Washington (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 Michael Johnson (USA) Sanderlei Parrela (BRA)23x15px Alejandro Cárdenas (MEX)
2001 Edmonton
details
23x15px Avard Moncur (BAH) Ingo Schultz (GER)23x15px Greg Haughton (JAM)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Tyree Washington (USA) Marc Raquil (FRA)23x15px Michael Blackwood (JAM)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Jeremy Wariner (USA) Andrew Rock (USA) Tyler Christopher (CAN)
2007 Osaka
details
 Jeremy Wariner (USA) LaShawn Merritt (USA) Angelo Taylor (USA)
2009 Berlin
details
 LaShawn Merritt (USA) Jeremy Wariner (USA)23x15px Renny Quow (TRI)
2011 Daegu
details
23x15px Kirani James (GRN) LaShawn Merritt (USA)23x15px Kevin Borlée (BEL)
2013 Moscow
details
 LaShawn Merritt (USA) Tony McQuay (USA)23x15px Luguelín Santos (DOM)
2015 Beijing
details
23x15px Wayde van Niekerk (RSA) LaShawn Merritt (USA)23x15px Kirani James (GRN)

Women

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
23x15px Jarmila Kratochvílová (TCH)23x15px Taťána Kocembová (TCH)23x15px Mariya Pinigina (URS)
1987 Rome
details
23x15px Olga Bryzgina (URS)23x15px Petra Muller (GDR)23x15px Kirsten Emmelmann (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Marie-José Pérec (FRA) Grit Breuer (GER) Sandra Myers (ESP)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Jearl Miles (USA) Natasha Kaiser-Brown (USA)23x15px Sandie Richards (JAM)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Marie-José Pérec (FRA)23x15px Pauline Davis (BAH) Jearl Miles (USA)
1997 Athens
details
 Cathy Freeman (AUS)23x15px Sandie Richards (JAM) Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 Cathy Freeman (AUS) Anja Rücker (GER)23x15px Lorraine Graham-Fenton (JAM)
2001 Edmonton
details
23x15px Amy Mbacké Thiam (SEN)23x15px Lorraine Fenton (JAM)23x15px Ana Guevara (MEX)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
23x15px Ana Guevara (MEX)23x15px Lorraine Fenton (JAM)23x15px Amy Mbacké Thiam (SEN)
2005 Helsinki
details
23x15px Tonique Williams-Darling (BAH) Sanya Richards (USA)23x15px Ana Guevara (MEX)
2007 Osaka
details
 Christine Ohuruogu (GBR) Nicola Sanders (GBR)23x15px Novlene Williams (JAM)
2009 Berlin
details
 Sanya Richards (USA)23x15px Shericka Williams (JAM) Antonina Krivoshapka (RUS)
2011 Daegu
details
23x15px Amantle Montsho (BOT) Allyson Felix (USA) Anastasiya Kapachinskaya (RUS)
2013 Moscow
details
 Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)23x15px Amantle Montsho (BOT) Antonina Krivoshapka (RUS)
2015 Beijing
details
 Allyson Felix (USA)23x15px Shaunae Miller (BAH)23x15px Shericka Jackson (JAM)

World Indoor Championships medalists

Men

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]23x15px Thomas Schönlebe (GDR) Todd Bennett (GBR) Mark Rowe (USA)
1987 Indianapolis
details
 Antonio McKay (USA)23x15px Roberto Hernández (CUB) Michael Franks (USA)
1989 Budapest
details
 Antonio McKay (USA)23x15px Ian Morris (TTO) Cayetano Cornet (ESP)
1991 Seville
details
23x15px Devon Morris (JAM)23x15px Samson Kitur (KEN) Cayetano Cornet (ESP)
1993 Toronto
details
 Butch Reynolds (USA)23x15px Sunday Bada (NGR) Darren Clark (AUS)
1995 Barcelona
details
 Darnell Hall (USA)23x15px Sunday Bada (NGR) Mikhail Vdovin (RUS)
1997 Paris
details
23x15px Sunday Bada (NGR) Jamie Baulch (GBR) Shunji Karube (JPN)
1999 Maebashi
details
 Jamie Baulch (GBR) Milton Campbell (USA)23x15px Alejandro Cárdenas (MEX)
2001 Lisbon
details
 Daniel Caines (GBR) Milton Campbell (USA)23x15px Danny McFarlane (JAM)
2003 Birmingham
details
 Tyree Washington (USA) Daniel Caines (GBR)23x15px Paul McKee (IRL)
 Jamie Baulch (GBR)
2004 Budapest
details
23x15px Alleyne Francique (GRN)23x15px Davian Clarke (JAM)23x15px Gary Kikaya (COD)
2006 Moscow
details
23x15px Alleyne Francique (GRN)23x15px California Molefe (BOT)23x15px Chris Brown (BAH)
2008 Valencia
details
 Tyler Christopher (CAN) Johan Wissman (SWE)23x15px Chris Brown (BAH)
2010 Doha
details
23x15px Chris Brown (BAH)23x15px William Collazo (CUB) Jamaal Torrance (USA)
2012 Istanbul
details
23x15px Nery Brenes (CRC)23x15px Demetrius Pinder (BAH)23x15px Chris Brown (BAH)
2014 Sopot
details
23x15px Pavel Maslák (CZE)23x15px Chris Brown (BAH) Kyle Clemons (USA)
2016 Portland
details
23x15px Pavel Maslák (CZE)23x15px Abdalelah Haroun (QAT)23x15px Deon Lendore (TTO)

Women

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A] Diane Dixon (USA)23x15px Regine Berg (BEL) Charmaine Crooks (CAN)
1987 Indianapolis
details
23x15px Sabine Busch (GDR) Lillie Leatherwood (USA)23x15px Judit Forgács (HUN)
1989 Budapest
details
 Helga Arendt (FRG) Diane Dixon (USA)23x15px Jillian Richardson (TTO)
1991 Seville
details
 Diane Dixon (USA) Sandra Myers (ESP)23x15px Anita Protti (SUI)
1993 Toronto
details
23x15px Sandie Richards (JAM)23x15px Tatyana Alekseyeva (RUS) Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
1995 Barcelona
details
 Irina Privalova (RUS)23x15px Sandie Richards (JAM)23x15px Daniela Georgieva (BUL)
1997 Paris
details
 Jearl Miles Clark (USA)23x15px Sandie Richards (JAM)23x15px Helena Fuchsová (CZE)
1999 Maebashi
details
 Grit Breuer (GER)23x15px Falilat Ogunkoya (NGR) Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
2001 Lisbon
details
23x15px Sandie Richards (JAM) Olga Kotlyarova (RUS) Olesya Zykina (RUS)
2003 Birmingham
details
 Natalya Nazarova (RUS)23x15px Christine Amertil (BAH) Grit Breuer (GER)
2004 Budapest
details
 Natalya Nazarova (RUS) Olesya Forsheva (RUS)23x15px Tonique Williams-Darling (BAH)
2006 Moscow
details
 Olesya Forsheva (RUS)23x15px Vania Stambolova (BUL)23x15px Christine Amertil (BAH)
2008 Valencia
details
 Olesya Zykina (RUS) Natalya Nazarova (RUS) Shareese Woods (USA)
2010 Doha
details
 Debbie Dunn (USA) Tatyana Firova (RUS)23x15px Vania Stambolova (BUL)
2012 Istanbul
details
 Sanya Richards-Ross (USA) Aleksandra Fedoriva (RUS) Natasha Hastings (USA)
2014 Sopot
details
 Francena McCorory (USA)23x15px Kaliese Spencer (JAM)23x15px Shaunae Miller (BAH)
2016 Portland
details
23x15px Kemi Adekoya (BHR) Ashley Spencer (USA) Quanera Hayes (USA)
  • A Known as the World Indoor Games

Season's bests

Notes and references

Cite error: Invalid <references> tag;parameter "group" is allowed only.Use <references />, or <references group="..." />

External links

  1. ^ Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, "Aerobic versus anaerobic training for success in various athletic events" by Shepard, R. J., 1978
  2. ^ http://www.flightunit.com/uncategorized/who-oscar-pistorius-is/
  3. ^ "All-time men's best 400m". alltime-athletics.com. 8 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  4. ^ "Men's 400m Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 14 August 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  5. ^ "400m Results". IAAF. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 
  6. ^ Jon Mulkeen (27 May 2017). "Kerley cruises to 43.70 clocking for 400m at NCAA West Preliminaries". IAAF. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  7. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). www.sep-olympic.ch. 5 July 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-03. 
  9. ^ "400m Semifinals Results" (PDF). IAAF. 6 August 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017. 
  10. ^ "400m Men - Heats Results". IAAF. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015. 
  11. ^ "400m Men - Heats Results". IAAF. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015. 
  12. ^ "Men's 400m Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 14 August 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  13. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  14. ^ "400m Results". IAAF. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 
  15. ^ "All-time women's best 400m". alltime-athletics.com. 26 November 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  16. ^ "400m Results". IAAF. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015. 
  17. ^ https://smsprio2016-a.akamaihd.net/_odf-documents/A/T/ATM404101_Results_2016_08_20_3f946dd6_c984_4e33_bf39_31afec5beb68.pdf
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