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Gruimorphae


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gruimorphae
Updated: 2016-11-17T02:12Z
Gruimorphae
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous - Holocene, 75–0 Ma
Charadrius-melodus-004 edit.jpg
Piping plover (Charadrius melodus)
Ralaqu.jpg
Water rail (Rallus aquaticus)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Clade:Gruae
Clade:Gruimorphae
Bonaparte, 1854
Orders

Gruimorphae[1] is a clade of birds that contains the orders Charadriiformes (plovers, gulls, and allies) and Gruiformes (cranes and rails) identified in 2014 by genome analysis.[2] This grouping has had historical support,[3][4][5] as various charadriiform families such as the families Pedionomidae and Turnicidae were classified as gruiforms. The relationship between these birds is due similar anatomical and behavioral characteristics. A morphological study went further to suggest that the gruiforms might be paraphyletic in respect to the shorebirds, with the rails being closely related to the buttonquails.[6][7]

References

  1. ^ http://www.jboyd.net/Taxo/List7.html
  2. ^ Jarvis, E.D.; et al. (2014). "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds". Science. 346 (6215): 1320–1331. PMC 4405904Freely accessible. PMID 25504713. doi:10.1126/science.1253451. 
  3. ^ Huxley TH. On the classification of birds; and on the taxonomic value of the modifications of certain of the cranial bones observable in that class. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1867;1867:415–472.
  4. ^ Lowe PR. An anatomical review of the ‘waders’ (Telmatomorphæ), with special reference to the families, subfamilies, and genera within the suborders Limicolæ, Grui-Limicolæ and Lari-Limicolæ Ibis. 1931a;73:712–771
  5. ^ Lowe PR. On the relations of the Gruimorphæ to the Charadriimorphæ and Rallimorphæ, with special reference to the taxonomic position of Rostratulidæ, Jacanidæ, and Burhinidæ
  6. ^ LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C.; ZUSI, RICHARD L. (2007). "Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 149 (1): 1–95. PMC 2517308Freely accessible. PMID 18784798. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x. 
  7. ^ http://www.helsinki.fi/~mhaaramo/metazoa/deuterostoma/chordata/archosauria/aves/neognathia.html


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