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Whistling duck


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whistling_duck
Updated: 2017-07-10T17:07Z
Whistling ducks
Whistling duck flight02 - natures pics-edit1.jpg
Black-bellied whistling duck
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Anseriformes
Family:Anatidae
Subfamily:Dendrocygninae
Reichenbach, 1853
Tribe:Dendrocygnini
Genus:Dendrocygna
Swainson, 1837
Type species
Anas arcuata
Horsfield, 1824
Species

The whistling ducks or tree ducks are a subfamily, Dendrocygninae, of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. They are not true ducks. In other taxonomic schemes, they are either considered a separate family, Dendrocygnidae, or the tribe Dendrocygnini in the goose subfamily Anserinae. The subfamily has one genus, Dendrocygna, which contains eight living species, and one undescribed extinct species from Aitutaki of the Cook Islands.

Taxonomy and evolution

Whistling ducks were first described by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae in 1758: the black-bellied whistling duck (then Anas autumnalis) and the West Indian whistling duck (then Anas arborea).[1] In 1837, William John Swainson named the genus Dendrocygna to distinguish whistling ducks from the other waterfowl.[2] The type species was listed as the wandering whistling duck (D. arcuata), formerly named by Thomas Horsfield as Anas arcuata.[3]

Whistling duck taxonomy, including that of the entire infraorder Anseriformes, is complicated and disputed.[4] Under a traditional classification proposed by ornithologist Jean Théodore Delacour based on morphological and behavioral traits,[5][6] whistling ducks belong to the tribe Dendrocygnini under the family Anatidae and subfamily Anserinae.[6][7] Following the revisions by ornithologist Paul Johnsgard, Dendrocygnini includes the genus Thalassornis (the white-backed duck) under this system.[7][8]

In 1997, Bradley C. Livezey proposed that Dendrocygna were a separate lineage from Anserinae, placing it and its tribe in its own subfamily, Dendrocygninae. Alternatively Charles Sibley and Jon Edward Ahlquist recommended placing Dendrocygna in its own family, Dendrocygnidae, which includes the genus Thalassornis.[6][7]

Simplified Anseriformes phylogeny[9][10][11]
 Anseriformes 

 Anatidae 


Anatinae (dabbling ducks)




Anserinae (swans and true geese)



Oxyurinae (stiff-tailed ducks and allies)





Dendrocygninae (whistling ducks)




Anseranatidae (magpie-geese)




Anhimidae (screamers)



Detailed Anatidae phylogeny[12]
 Anatidae 









 other Anatidae



 other Anatinae




 all Anserinae



 Oxyurinae, Nettapus, Malacorhynchus, Salvadorina



 D. arcuata 



 D. javanica 



 Stictonetta 







 D. bicolor 



 D. eytoni 







 D. arborea 



 D. guttata 





 Thalassornis 





 D. autumnalis 



 D. viduata 




Dendrocygninae
Stictonettinae
Dendrocygninae
Thalassorninae
Dendrocygninae

Species

Eight species of whistling duck are currently recognized in the genus Dendrocygna. However, Johnsgard considers the white-backed duck (Thalassornis leuconotus) from Africa and Madagascar to be distinct ninth species,[13] a view first proposed in 1960 and initially supported by behavioral similarities. Later, similarities in anatomy, duckling vocalizations, and feather proteins gave additional support.[8] Molecular analysis in 2009 also suggested that the white-backed duck was nested within the whistling duck clade.[12] In addition to the extant species, subfossil remains of an extinct, undescribed species have been found on Aitutaki of the Cook Islands.[14]

Scientific nameCommon nameAuthorityConservation statusImage
D. arboreaWest Indian whistling duckLinnaeus, 1758Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arborea) RWD2.jpg
D. arcuataWandering whistling duckHorsfield, 1824Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least concern

Dendrocygna arcuata australis 4.jpg
D. autumnalisBlack-bellied whistling duckLinnaeus, 1758Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least concern

Dendrocygna autumnalis, London Wetland Centre, UK - Diliff.jpg
D. bicolorFulvous whistling duckVieillot, 1816Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least concern

Dendrocygna bicolor, London Wetland Centre, UK - Diliff.jpg
D. eytoniPlumed whistling duckEyton, 1838Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least concern

Sichelpfeifgans Dendrocygna eytoni 0505264.jpg
D. guttataSpotted whistling duckSchlegel, 1866Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least concern

Spotted Whistling Duck RWD2.jpg
D. javanicaLesser whistling duckHorsfield, 1821Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least concern

Lesser Whistling Duck RWD1.jpg
D. viduataWhite-faced whistling duckLinnaeus, 1766Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least concern

Dendrocygna viduata upright.jpg

Description

Whistling ducks are found in the tropics and subtropics. As their name implies, they have distinctive whistling calls.[citation needed]

The whistling ducks have long legs and necks, and are very gregarious, flying to and from night-time roosts in large flocks. Both sexes have the same plumage, and all have a hunched appearance and black underwings in flight.[citation needed]

References

Literature cited

External links

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