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Fieldata


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fieldata
Updated: 2017-08-05T05:54Z

FIELDATA (also written as Fieldata) was a pioneering computer project run by the US Army Signal Corps in the late 1950s that intended to create a single standard (as defined in MIL-STD-188A/B/C[1][2][3][4]) for collecting and distributing battlefield information. In this respect it could be thought of as a generalization of the US Air Force's SAGE system that was being created at about the same time.

Unlike SAGE, FIELDATA was intended to be much larger in scope, allowing information to be gathered from any number of sources and forms. Much of the FIELDATA system was the specifications for the format the data would take, leading to a character set that would be a huge influence on ASCII a few years later.[1][5] FIELDATA also specified the message formats and even the electrical standards for connecting FIELDATA-standard machines together.

Another part of the FIELDATA project was the design and construction of computers at several different scales, from data-input terminals at one end, to theatre-wide data processing centers at the other. Several FIELDATA-standard computers were built during the lifetime of the project, including the transportable MOBIDIC from Sylvania, and the BASICPAC and LOGICPAC from Philco. Another system, ARTOC, was intended to provide graphical output (in the form of photographic slides), but was never completed.

Because FIELDATA did not specify codes for interconnection and data transmission control, different systems (like "STANDARD FORM", "COMLOGNET Common language code", "SACCOMNET (465L) Control Code"[6][5]) used different control functions. Intercommunication between them was difficult.[1]

FIELDATA is the original character set used internally in UNIVAC computers of the 1100 series, represented by the sixth of the 36-bit word of that computer. The direct successor to the UNIVAC 1100 is the Unisys 2200 series computers, which use FIELDATA to this day (although ASCII is now also common with each character encoded in 1/4 of a word, or 9 bits). Because some of the FIELDATA characters are not represented in ASCII, the Unisys 2200 uses '^', '"' and '_' characters for codes 004oct, 076oct and 077oct respectively.

The FIELDATA project ran from 1956[citation needed] until it was stopped during a reorganization in 1962.[citation needed]

FIELDATA characters

Tag Bit (1)Indicator Bits (2)Detail Bits (4)Binary Bits (1+6)DecimalOctalGlyphName
00000000:0000000000Blank / Idle (IDL)
00000010:0000011001Control Upper Case (CUC)
00000100:0000102002Control Lower Case (CLC)
00000110:0000113003Control Tab (CHT)
00001000:0001004004Control Carriage Return (CCR)
00001010:0001015005Control Space (CSP)
00001100:0001106006a
00001110:0001117007b
00010000:0010008010c
00010010:0010019011d
00010100:00101010012e
00010110:00101111013f
00011000:00110012014g
00011010:00110113015h
00011100:00111014016i
00011110:00111115017j
00100000:01000016020k
00100010:01000117021l
00100100:01001018022m
00100110:01001119023n
00101000:01010020024o
00101010:01010121025p
00101100:01011022026q
00101110:01011123027r
00110000:01100024030s
00110010:01100125031t
00110100:01101026032u
00110110:01101127033v
00111000:01110028034w
00111010:01110129035x
00111100:01111030036y
00111110:01111131037z
01000000:10000032040Dial 0 (D0)
01000010:10000133041Dial 1 (D1)
01000100:10001034042Dial 2 (D2)
01000110:10001135043Dial 3 (D3)
01001000:10010036044Dial 4 (D4)
01001010:10010137045Dial 5 (D5)
01001100:10011038046Dial 6 (D6)
01001110:10011139047Dial 7 (D7)
01010000:10100040050Dial 8 (D8)
01010010:10100141051Dial 9 (D9)
01010100:10101042052Start of Control Block (SCB)
01010110:10101143053Start of Block (SBK)
01011000:10110044054Spare
01011010:10110145055Spare
01011100:10111046056Spare
01011110:10111147057Spare
01100000:11000048060Ready to Transmit (RTT)
01100010:11000149061Ready to Receive (RTR)
01100100:11001050062Not Ready to Receive (NRR)
01100110:11001151063End of Blockette (EBE)
01101000:11010052064End of Block (EBK)
01101010:11010153065End of File (EOF)
01101100:11011054066End of Control Block (ECB)
01101110:11011155067Acknowledge Receipt (ACK)
01110000:11100056070Repeat Block (RPT)
01110010:11100157071Spare
01110100:11101058072Interpret Sign (INS)
01110110:11101159073Non-Interpret Sign (NIS)
01111000:11110060074Control Word Follows (CWF)
01111010:11110161075S.A.C. (SAC)
01111100:11111062076Special Character (SPC)
01111110:11111163077Delete (DEL)
10000001:00000064100@Master Space (MS)
10000011:00000165101[Upper Case (UC)
10000101:00001066102]Lower Case (LC)
10000111:00001167103#
10001001:00010068104ΔDelta
10001011:00010169105Blank / Space (SP)
10001101:00011070106A
10001111:00011171107B
10010001:00100072110C
10010011:00100173111D
10010101:00101074112E
10010111:00101175113F
10011001:00110076114G
10011011:00110177115H
10011101:00111078116I
10011111:00111179117J
10100001:01000080120K
10100011:01000181121L
10100101:01001082122M
10100111:01001183123N
10101001:01010084124O
10101011:01010185125P
10101101:01011086126Q
10101111:01011187127R
10110001:01100088130S
10110011:01100189131T
10110101:01101090132U
10110111:01101191133V
10111001:01110092134W
10111011:01110193135X
10111101:01111094136Y
10111111:01111195137Z
11000001:10000096140)
11000011:10000197141-
11000101:10001098142+
11000111:10001199143<
11001001:100100100144=
11001011:100101101145>
11001101:100110102146&
11001111:100111103147$
11010001:101000104150*
11010011:101001105151(
11010101:101010106152%
11010111:101011107153:
11011001:101100108154?
11011011:101101109155!
11011101:101110110156,
11011111:101111111157\
11100001:1100001121600
11100011:1100011131611
11100101:1100101141622
11100111:1100111151633
11101001:1101001161644
11101011:1101011171655
11101101:1101101181666
11101111:1101111191677
11110001:1110001201708
11110011:1110011211719
11110101:111010122172'
11110111:111011123173;
11111001:111100124174/
11111011:111101125175.
11111101:111110126176Lozenge
11111111:111111127177Not Equal

Character map

FIELDATA[7]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
 
0_
 
IDL
0000
0
CUC

1
CLC

2
CHT
0009
3
CCR
000D
4
CSP
0020
5
a
0061
6
b
0062
7
c
0063
8
d
0064
9
e
0065
10
f
0066
11
g
0067
12
h
0068
13
i
0069
14
j
006A
15
 
1_
 
k
006B
16
l
006C
17
m
006D
18
n
006E
19
o
006F
20
p
0070
21
q
0071
22
r
0072
23
s
0073
24
t
0074
25
u
0075
26
v
0076
27
w
0077
28
x
0078
29
y
0079
30
z
007A
31
 
2_
 
D0

32
D1

33
D2

34
D3

35
D4

36
D5

37
D6

38
D7

39
D8

40
D9

41
SCB

42
SBK
0001
43


44


45


46


47
 
3_
 
RTT

48
RTR

49
NRR

50
EBE

51
EBK
0017
52
EOF

53
ECB

54
ACK
0006
55
RPT
0015
56


57
INS

58
NIS

59
CWF

60
SAC

61
SPC
001B
62
DEL
007F
63
 
4_
 
@
0040
64
[
005B
65
]
005D
66
#
0023
67
Δ
0394
68
SP
00A0
69
A
0041
70
B
0042
71
C
0043
72
D
0044
73
E
0045
74
F
0046
75
G
0047
76
H
0048
77
I
0049
78
J
004A
79
 
5_
 
K
004B
80
L
004C
81
M
004D
82
N
004E
83
O
004F
84
P
0050
85
Q
0051
86
R
0052
87
S
0053
88
T
0054
89
U
0055
90
V
0056
91
W
0057
92
X
0058
93
Y
0059
94
Z
005A
95
 
6_
 
)
0029
96
-
002D
97
+
002B
98
<
003C
99
=
003D
100
>
003E
101
&
0026
102
$
0024
103
*
002A
104
(
0028
105
%
0025
106
:
003A
107
?
003F
108
!
0021
109
,
002C
110
\
005C
111
 
7_
 
0
0030
112
1
0031
113
2
0032
114
3
0033
115
4
0034
116
5
0035
117
6
0036
118
7
0037
119
8
0038
120
9
0039
121
'
0027
122
;
003B
123
/
002F
124
.
002E
125

2311
126

2260
127
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F

References

  1. ^ a b c Mackenzie, Charles E. (1980). Coded Character Sets, History and Development. The Systems Programming Series (1 ed.). Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 61, 64, 86. ISBN 0-201-14460-3. LCCN 77-90165. ISBN 978-0-201-14460-4. Retrieved 2016-05-22.  [1]
  2. ^ Military Communication System Technical Standard, MIL-STD-188A, 1958-04-25 
  3. ^ Military Communication System Technical Standard, MIL-STD-188B, 1964-02-24 
  4. ^ Military Communication System Technical Standard, MIL-STD-188C, 1969-11-24 
  5. ^ a b Jennings, Thomas Daniel (2016-04-20) [1999]. "An annotated history of some character codes or ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Infiltration". World Power Systems (WPS). Archived from the original on 2016-05-22. Retrieved 2016-05-22. 
  6. ^ International Telephone & Telegraph Corporation (ITT) (1968). Reference Data for Radio Engineers (5 ed.). Howard W. Sams and Co. pp. Appendix. ISBN 0-672-20678-1. Retrieved 2016-05-23. 
  7. ^ Bettencourt, Rebecca. "Fieldata". Kreative Korporation. Retrieved 15 July 2017. 

Further reading

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