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GSM 03.38


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GSM_03.38
Updated: 2017-07-15T05:00Z

In mobile telephony GSM 03.38 or 3GPP 23.038 is a character set used in the Short Message Service of GSM based cell phones. It is defined in GSM recommendation 03.38. Messages sent via this encoding can be encoded in the default GSM 7-bit alphabet, the 8-bit data alphabet, and the 16-bit UCS-2 alphabet.[1] Support of the GSM 7-bit alphabet is mandatory for GSM handsets and network elements,[1] but characters in languages such as Arabic, Chinese, Korean or Japanese languages must be encoded using the 16-bit UCS-2 character encoding or an extended national language shift table.

GSM 7-bit default alphabet and extension table of 3GPP TS 23.038 / GSM 03.38

The standard encoding for GSM messages is the 7-bit default alphabet as defined in the 23.038 recommendation.

Seven-bit characters must be encoded into octets following one of three packing modes:

  • CBS: using this encoding, it is possible to send up to 93 characters (packed in up to 82 octets) in one SMS message in a Cell Broadcast Service.
  • SMS: using this encoding, it is possible to send up to 160 characters (packed in up to 140 octets) in one SMS message in the GSM network.
  • USSD: using this encoding, it is possible to send up to 182 characters (packed in up to 160 octets) in one SMS message of Unstructured Supplementary Service Data.
Basic Character Set[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00@ΔSP0¡P¿p
0x01£_!1AQaq
0x02$Φ"2BRbr
0x03¥Γ#3CScs
0x04èΛ¤4DTdt
0x05éΩ%5EUeu
0x06ùΠ&6FVfv
0x07ìΨ'7GWgw
0x08òΣ(8HXhx
0x09ÇΘ)9IYiy
0x0ALFΞ*:JZjz
0x0BØESC+;KÄkä
0x0CøÆ,<LÖlö
0x0DCRæ-=MÑmñ
0x0EÅß.>NÜnü
0x0FåÉ/?O§oà
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Basic Character Set Extension[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00    |   
0x01        
0x02        
0x03        
0x04 ^      
0x05       
0x06        
0x07        
0x08  {     
0x09  }     
0x0AFF       
0x0B SS2      
0x0C   [    
0x0DCR2  ~    
0x0E   ]    
0x0F  \     
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Note that the second part of the table is only accessible if the GSM device supports the 7-bit extension mechanism, using the ESC character prefix. Otherwise, the ESC code itself is interpreted as a space, and the following character will be treated as if there was no leading ESC code.

Most of the high part of the table is not used in the default character set, but the GSM standard defines some language code indicators that allows the system to identify national variants of this part, to support more characters than those displayed in the above table.

In a standard GSM text message, all characters are encoded using 7-bit code units, packed together to fill all bits of octets. So, for example, the 140-octet envelope of an SMS,[3] with no other language indicator but only the standard class prefix, can transport up to (140*8)/7=160, that is 160 GSM 7-bit characters (but note that the ESC code counts for one of them, if characters in the high part of the table are used).

Longer messages may be sent, but will require a continuation prefix and a sequence number on subsequent SMS messages (these prefix bytes and sequence number are counted within the maximum length of the 140-octet payload of the envelope format).

When there are 1 to 6 spare bits in the last octet of a message, these bits are set to zero (these bits do not count as a character but only as a filler). When there are 7 spare bits in the last octet of a message, these bits are set to the 7-bit code of the CR control (also used as a padding filler) instead of being set to zero (where they would be confused with the 7-bit code of an '@' character).

This 7-bit encoding allows the transport of texts encoded in the Basic Latin subset of ASCII, as well as some characters of the ISO Latin 1 character set. It also allows the encoding of texts written in the Greek script, but only capitals; for such use in Greek, the Latin capital letters that look like the Greek letters are reused with the same code, so that the above character set is complete only for modern monotonic Greek restricted to capital letters. A complete support for the Greek alphabet (including small letters) requires a national version of the shifted 7-bit table (using the ESC code for each national character encoded in this shifted table), or an unspecified proprietary 8-bit encoding, or the use of the UCS-2 encoding (see below).

Note that the special code marked SS2 in the table above has also been assigned (and encoded as 0x1B,0x1B) to allow using another alternate 7-bit shift table. But this mechanism has never been used and the UCS-2 encoding has been preferred.

GSM 8-bit data encoding

8-bit data encoding mode treats the information as raw data. According to the standard, the alphabet for this encoding is user-specific.

UCS-2 Encoding

This encoding allows use of a greater range of characters and languages. UCS-2 can represent the most commonly used Latin and eastern characters at the cost of a greater space expense. Strictly speaking, UCS-2 is limited to characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane. However, since modern programming environments do not provide encoders or decoders for UCS-2, some cell phones (e.g. iPhones) use UTF-16 instead of UCS-2.[4] This works, because for characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane (including full alphabets of most human languages) UCS-2 and UTF-16 encodings are identical. To encode characters outside of the BMP, such as emoticons, UTF-16 uses surrogate pairs, which when decoded with UCS-2 would appear as two valid but unmapped code points.

A single SMS GSM message using this encoding can have at most 70 characters (140 octets).

Note that on many GSM cell phones, there's no specific preselection of the UCS-2 encoding. The default is to use the 7-bit encoding described above, until one enters a character that is not present in the GSM 7-bit table (for example the lowercase 'a' with acute: 'á'). In that case, the whole message gets reencoded using the UCS-2 encoding, and the maximum length of the message sent in only 1 SMS is immediately reduced to 70 characters, instead of 160. On smartphones the message encoding depends on the SMS application used and its setting as well as on the length of the message. Some smartphones even send longer messages as a multimedia message (MMS).

To avoid unexpected costs for senders that have a subscription for a limited pack of sent SMS, smartphones should display the number of character used and the maximum number of characters in the composed SMS. When a message does exceeds this maximum, the message will be sent as multiple successive SMS containing parts of the message (each one containing a sequence number, which also uses a few leading characters in each part); these parts will be reassembled later by the recipient.

Some GSM smartphones will alert the user about the number of SMS messages needed to send the message, when it requires more than one.

National language shift tables

Since release 8 of the 3GPP 23.038 standard of March 2008, additional characters sets can be accessed through the use of a National Language Shift Tables.

These tables allow using of different character sets according to the language the text is going to be written. The choice of table for a given message is selected in the User Data Header section of an SMS message and can be specified for the whole text (a Locking shift table replacing standard GSM 7 bit default alphabet table) or a single character (Single shift table replacing the GSM 7 bit default alphabet extension table). Locking and Single shift tables together in the same message are possible, if both standard default alphabet table and default alphabet extension table are to be replaced.

Using a shift table, a message can still use 7-bit encoding for the characters, but a different set can be chosen to correctly show accented and language specific characters. This allows up to 155 characters, encoded in 136 octets (140 octets, minus the 4-octets of User Data Header required to indicate the use of a shift table and the language code). With both Locking and Single shift tables, up to 150 characters are allowed, encoded in 132 octets (140 octets, minus two 4-octets User Data Headers).

Initially, shift tables only for Turkish were specified; Spanish and Portuguese were added in later revisions of release 8. Release 9 introduced 10 languages used in India written with a Brahmic scripts (Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu) and Urdu.

There is still no defined national language shift table for French, Greek, Russian, Bulgarian, Arabic, Hebrew and most Central European languages that need a better coverage than the default 7-bit standard character set and its default 7-bit extension character set: if ever any character is composed that cannot be represented in those default GSM 7-bit sets, the message will be automatically reencoded using UCS-2, with the effect of dividing by more than two the maximum length in characters of messages that can be sent at the price of a single SMS (when a message is split in multiple parts, a few other octets are needed in the User Data Header to indicate the sequence number of each part).

Although a revision of GSM 03.38 (as early as in version 4.0.1 of September 1994) has defined Data Coding Scheme values for Cell Broadcast System (CBS) for German, English, Italian, French, Spanish, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, Greek and Turkish; with Hungarian, Polish, Czech, Hebrew, Arabic, Russian and Icelandic added in later revisions, no coding tables were defined for these languages. The purpose of this field was purely to identify the language of the message.

There's also no language shift table for Japanese written in basic kanas, or for Korean written in Hangul jamos, or for Chinese written in the Han script. This is often not a problem in Japan, because it uses other standards than GSM and WAP for messaging.

Spanish language (Latin script)

There's no specific Locking Shift Character Set for the Spanish language. Uses the default Basic Character Set.

Basic Character Set
by default
(No Locking Shift Table Defined for Spanish)[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00@ΔSP0¡P¿p
0x01£_!1AQaq
0x02$Φ"2BRbr
0x03¥Γ#3CScs
0x04èΛ¤4DTdt
0x05éΩ%5EUeu
0x06ùΠ&6FVfv
0x07ìΨ'7GWgw
0x08òΣ(8HXhx
0x09ÇΘ)9IYiy
0x0ALFΞ*:JZjz
0x0BØESC+;KÄkä
0x0CøÆ,<LÖlö
0x0DCRæ-=MÑmñ
0x0EÅß.>NÜnü
0x0FåÉ/?O§oà
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Spanish language
UDH contains 0x24 0x01 0x02[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00    |   
0x01    Á á 
0x02        
0x03        
0x04 ^      
0x05     Úú
0x06        
0x07        
0x08  {     
0x09ç } Í í 
0x0AFF       
0x0B SS2      
0x0C   [    
0x0DCR2  ~    
0x0E   ]    
0x0F  \ Ó ó 
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Portuguese language (Latin script)

Locking Shift Character Set
for Portuguese language
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x03[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00@ΔSP0ÍP~p
0x01£_!1AQaq
0x02$ª"2BRbr
0x03¥Ç#3CScs
0x04êÀº4DTdt
0x05é%5EUeu
0x06ú^&6FVfv
0x07í\'7GWgw
0x08ó(8HXhx
0x09çÓ)9IYiy
0x0ALF|*:JZjz
0x0BÔESC+;KÃkã
0x0CôÂ,<LÕlõ
0x0DCRâ-=MÚm`
0x0EÁÊ.>NÜnü
0x0FáÉ/?O§oà
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Portuguese language
UDH contains 0x24 0x01 0x03[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00    |   
0x01    À Â 
0x02 Φ      
0x03 Γ      
0x04 ^      
0x05êΩ   Úú
0x06 Π      
0x07 Ψ      
0x08 Σ{     
0x09çΘ} Í í 
0x0AFF       
0x0BÔSS2   Ã ã
0x0Cô  [ Õ õ
0x0DCR2  ~    
0x0EÁ  ]    
0x0FáÊ\ Ó óâ
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Turkish language (Latin script)

Locking Shift Character Set
for Turkish language
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x01[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00@ΔSP0İPçp
0x01£_!1AQaq
0x02$Φ"2BRbr
0x03¥Γ#3CScs
0x04Λ¤4DTdt
0x05éΩ%5EUeu
0x06ùΠ&6FVfv
0x07ıΨ'7GWgw
0x08òΣ(8HXhx
0x09ÇΘ)9IYiy
0x0ALFΞ*:JZjz
0x0BĞESC+;KÄkä
0x0CğŞ,<LÖlö
0x0DCRş-=MÑmñ
0x0EÅß.>NÜnü
0x0FåÉ/?O§oà
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Turkish language
UDH contains 0x24 0x01 0x01[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00    |   
0x01        
0x02        
0x03     Şçş
0x04 ^      
0x05       
0x06        
0x07    Ğ ğ 
0x08  {     
0x09  } İ ı 
0x0AFF       
0x0B SS2      
0x0C   [    
0x0DCR2  ~    
0x0E   ]    
0x0F  \     
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Urdu language (Arabic and basic Latin scripts)

It may also be used for the Sindhi language also written in the Arabic script.

Sometimes it may be used for Arabic language as well, but the Eastern digits (encoded here in their Persian-Hindu variant) won't be used in that case because standard Arabic prefer its traditional Eastern Arabic digits, and will frequently be replaced by Western Arabic digits (encoded in the locking shift character set in column 0x30) which are also used now frequently in Urdu as well. However, in India, phones recognizing the Arabic language indication may substitute the Persian-Hindu variants of the Eastern Arabic digits by the traditional Eastern Arabic digits.

Locking Shift Character Set
for Urdu language
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x0D[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00اثSP0صں◌ٔp
0x01آج!1ضڻaq
0x02بځڏ2طڼbr
0x03ٻڄڍ3ظوcs
0x04ڀڃذ4عۄdt
0x05پڅر5فەeu
0x06ڦچڑ6قہfv
0x07تڇړ7کھgw
0x08ۂح)8ڪءhx
0x09ٿخ(9ګیiy
0x0ALFدڙ:گېjz
0x0BٹESCز;ڳےk◌ٕ
0x0Cٽڌ,ښڱ◌ٍl◌ّ
0x0DCRڈږسل◌ِm◌ٓ
0x0Eٺډ.شم◌ُn◌ٖ
0x0Fٺڊژ?ن◌ٗo◌ٰ
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Urdu language
UDH contains 0x24 0x01 0x0D[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00@<۴◌ؓ|P  
0x01£=۵◌ؔAQ  
0x02$>۶؛BR  
0x03¥¡۷؟CS  
0x04¿^۸ـDT  
0x05"¡۹◌ْEU 
0x06¤_،◌٘FV  
0x07%#؍٫GW  
0x08&*{٬HX  
0x09'؀}ٲIY  
0x0AFF؁؎ٳJZ  
0x0B*SS2؏ۍK   
0x0C+۰◌ؐ[L   
0x0DCR2۱◌ؑ~M   
0x0E-۲◌ؒ]N   
0x0F/۳\۔O   
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Hindi language (Devenagari and basic Latin scripts)

Locking Shift Character Set
for Hindi language
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x06[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00◌ँSP0◌ाp
0x01◌ं!1◌िaq
0x02◌ः2◌ीbr
0x033◌ुcs
0x044◌ूdt
0x055◌ृeu
0x066◌ॄfv
0x077◌ॅgw
0x08)8◌ॆhx
0x09(9◌ेiy
0x0ALF:◌ैjz
0x0BESC;◌ॉk
0x0C,◌ॊl
0x0DCR◌ोm
0x0E.◌़◌ौn
0x0F?◌्oॿ
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Hindi language
UDH contains 0x24 0x01 0x06[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00@<|P  
0x01£=AQ  
0x02$>BR  
0x03¥¡CS  
0x04¿^DT  
0x05"¡EU 
0x06¤_◌॑FV  
0x07%#◌॒◌ॢGW  
0x08&*{◌ॣHX  
0x09'}IY  
0x0AFF◌॓JZ  
0x0B*SS2◌॔ K   
0x0C+[L   
0x0DCR2~M   
0x0E-]N   
0x0F/\ O   
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Bengali and Assamese languages (Bengali and basic Latin scripts)

Locking Shift Character Set
for Bengali and Assemese languages
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x04[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00◌ঁSP0◌বp
0x01◌ং !1◌িaq
0x02◌ঃ 2◌ীbr
0x033◌ুcs
0x044◌ূdt
0x055 ◌ৃeu
0x066◌ৄfv
0x077  gw
0x08)8  hx
0x09(9 ◌েiy
0x0ALF:◌ৈjz
0x0BESC; k◌ৗ
0x0C ,  l
0x0DCR◌োm
0x0E .◌়◌ৌn
0x0F?◌্o
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Bengali and Assamese languages
UDH contains 0x24 0x01 0x04[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00@<|P  
0x01£=AQ  
0x02$>BR  
0x03¥¡CS  
0x04¿^DT  
0x05"¡ EU 
0x06¤_ FV  
0x07%#◌ৢ GW  
0x08&*{ HX  
0x09'} IY  
0x0AFF◌ৣ JZ  
0x0B*SS2 K   
0x0C+[L   
0x0DCR2~M   
0x0E-]N   
0x0F/\ O   
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Punjabi language (Gurmukhī and basic Latin scripts)

Locking Shift Character Set
for Punjabi language
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x0A[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00◌ਁSP0◌ਾ◌ੑp
0x01◌ਂ !1◌ਿaq
0x02◌ਃ 2◌ੀbr
0x033◌ੁcs
0x044◌ੂdt
0x055  eu
0x066 fv
0x077 gw
0x08)8  hx
0x09 (9◌ੇiy
0x0ALF:◌ੈjz
0x0B ESC;  k◌ੰ
0x0C ,  l◌ੱ
0x0DCR◌ੋm
0x0E .◌਼◌ੌn
0x0F? ◌੍o
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Punjabi language
UDH contains 0x24 0x01 0x0A[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00@< |P  
0x01£= AQ  
0x02$> BR  
0x03¥¡ CS  
0x04¿^ DT  
0x05"¡ EU 
0x06¤_ FV  
0x07%# GW  
0x08&*{ HX  
0x09'} IY  
0x0AFF JZ  
0x0B*SS2 K   
0x0C+[L   
0x0DCR2◌ੵ~M   
0x0E- ]N   
0x0F/\ O   
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Gujarati language (Gujarati and basic Latin scripts)

Locking Shift Character Set
for Gujarati language
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x05[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00◌ઁSP0◌ાp
0x01◌ં!1◌િaq
0x02◌ઃ 2◌ીbr
0x033◌ુcs
0x044◌ૂdt
0x055 ◌ૃeu
0x066◌ૄfv
0x077◌ૅgw
0x08)8  hx
0x09(9◌ેiy
0x0ALF:◌ૈjz
0x0BESC;◌ૉk
0x0C,  l
0x0DCR◌ોm◌ૢ
0x0E .◌઼◌ૌn◌ૣ
0x0F?◌્o
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Gujarati language
UDH contains 0x24 0x01 0x05[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00@< |P  
0x01£= AQ  
0x02$> BR  
0x03¥¡ CS  
0x04¿^ DT  
0x05"¡ EU 
0x06¤_  FV  
0x07%#  GW  
0x08&*{ HX  
0x09'} IY  
0x0AFF  JZ  
0x0B*SS2  K   
0x0C+ [L   
0x0DCR2 ~M   
0x0E- ]N   
0x0F/\ O   
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Oriya language (Oriya and basic Latin scripts)

Locking Shift Character Set
for Oriya language
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x09[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00◌ଁSP0◌ା◌ୖp
0x01◌ଂ !1◌ିaq
0x02◌ଃ 2◌ୀbr
0x033◌ୁcs
0x044◌ୂdt
0x055 ◌ୃeu
0x066fv
0x077 gw
0x08)8  hx
0x09(9◌େiy
0x0ALF:◌ୈjz
0x0BESC; k◌ୗ
0x0C ,  l
0x0DCR◌ୋm
0x0E .◌଼◌ୌn◌ୢ
0x0F?◌୍o◌ୣ
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Oriya language
UDH contains 0x24 0x01 0x09[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00@< |P  
0x01£= AQ  
0x02$> BR  
0x03¥¡ CS  
0x04¿^ DT  
0x05"¡ EU 
0x06¤_ FV  
0x07%# GW  
0x08&*{ HX  
0x09'} IY  
0x0AFF JZ  
0x0B*SS2 K   
0x0C+[L   
0x0DCR2 ~M   
0x0E- ]N   
0x0F/\ O   
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Tamil language (Tamil and basic Latin scripts)

Locking Shift Character Set
for Tamil language
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x0B[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00 SP0 ◌ாp
0x01◌ஂ !1 ◌ிaq
0x02◌ஃ2◌ீbr
0x03 3◌ுcs
0x04 4◌ூdt
0x05 5 eu
0x06 6 fv
0x07 7 gw
0x08 )8◌ெhx
0x09 (9◌ேiy
0x0ALF :◌ைjz
0x0B ESC ; k◌ௗ
0x0C  ,◌ொl
0x0DCR ◌ோm
0x0E .  ◌ௌn
0x0F? ◌்o
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Tamil language
UDH contains 0x24 0x01 0x0B[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00@< |P  
0x01£= AQ  
0x02$> BR  
0x03¥¡ CS  
0x04¿^ DT  
0x05"¡ EU 
0x06¤_ FV  
0x07%# GW  
0x08&*{ HX  
0x09'} IY  
0x0AFF JZ  
0x0B*SS2 K   
0x0C+[L   
0x0DCR2~M   
0x0E-]N   
0x0F/\ O   
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Telugu language (Telugu and basic Latin scripts)

Locking Shift Character Set
for Telugu language
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x0C[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00◌ఁSP0◌ా◌ౕp
0x01◌ం !1◌ిaq
0x02◌ః2◌ీbr
0x033◌ుcs
0x044◌ూdt
0x055◌ృeu
0x066◌ౄfv
0x077 gw
0x08)8 ◌ెhx
0x09(9◌ేiy
0x0ALF:◌ైjz
0x0BESC; k◌ౖ
0x0C , ◌ొl
0x0DCR◌ోm
0x0E. ◌ౌn◌ౢ
0x0F?◌్o◌ౣ
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Telugu language
UDH contains 0x24 0x01 0x0C[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70
0x00@<|P  
0x01£=AQ  
0x02$>౿BR  
0x03¥¡ CS  
0x04¿^ DT  
0x05"¡ EU  
0x06¤_ FV  
0x07%# GW  
0x08&*{ HX  
0x09' } IY  
0x0AFF  JZ  
0x0B*SS2 K   
0x0C+[L   
0x0DCR2~M   
0x0E-]N   
0x0F/\ O   
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Kannada language (Kannada and basic Latin scripts)

Locking Shift Character Set
for Kannada language
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x07[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70 !  
0x00 SP0p
0x01 !1ಿaq
0x022br
0x033cs
0x044dt
0x055eu
0x066fv
0x077 gw
0x08)8 hx
0x09(9iy
0x0ALF:jz
0x0BESC; k
0x0C , l
0x0DCRm
0x0E.n
0x0F?o
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Kannada language
UDH contains 0x24 0x01 0x07[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70 !  
0x00@< |P  
0x01£= AQ  
0x02$> BR  
0x03¥¡ CS  
0x04¿^ DT  
0x05"¡ EU 
0x06¤_ FV  
0x07%# GW  
0x08&*{ HX  
0x09'} IY  
0x0AFF JZ  
0x0B*SS2  K   
0x0C+ ]L   
0x0DCR2 ~M   
0x0E- ]N   
0x0F/\ O   
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

Malayalam language (Malayalam and basic Latin scripts)

Locking Shift Character Set
for Malayalam language
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x08[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70 !  
0x00 SP0p
0x01 !1ിaq
0x022br
0x033cs
0x044dt
0x055eu
0x066fv
0x077 gw
0x08)8hx
0x09(9iy
0x0ALF:jz
0x0BCR; k
0x0C , l
0x0DCRm
0x0E, n
0x0F?o
  • LF is a Line Feed control.
  • CR is a Carriage Return control, or filler.
  • ESC is an Escape control.
  • SP is a Space character.
Single Shift Character Set
for Malayalam language
UDH contains 0x25 0x01 0x08[2]
 0x000x100x200x300x400x500x600x70 !  
0x00@<|P  
0x01£=AQ  
0x02$>BR  
0x03¥¡CS  
0x04¿^ൿDT  
0x05"¡ EU 
0x06¤_ FV  
0x07%# GW  
0x08&*{ HX  
0x09'} IY  
0x0AFF JZ  
0x0B*SS2 K   
0x0C+[L   
0x0DCR2~M   
0x0E-]N   
0x0F/\ O   
  • FF is a Page Break control. If not recognized, it shall be treated like LF.
  • CR2 is a control character. No language specific character shall be encoded at this position.
  • SS2 is a second Single Shift Escape control reserved for future extensions.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b 3GPP TS 23.038, Alphabets and language-specific information.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Alphabets and language-specific information (3G TS 23.038 version 12.0.0) (zipped .doc file), ETSI, September 2014.
  3. ^ "The text messages [...] contain up to 140 octets." in 3GPP TS 23.040 Technical realization of the Short Message Service (SMS)
  4. ^ Chad Selph (2012-11-08). "Adventures in Unicode SMS". Twilio. Retrieved 2015-08-28. 

External links

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