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ISO 15919


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_15919
Updated: 2017-08-26T21:12Z

ISO 15919 "Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters" is one of a series of international standards for romanization. It was published in 2001 and uses diacritics to map the much larger set of consonants and vowels in Brahmic scripts to the Latin script.

Overview

ISO 15919 transliterations
ISO7-bit
ISO
DevaArabKthiBengGuruGujrOryaModiTamlTeluKndaMlymSinhCount
aaاَ𑂃𑘀10
āaaآ𑂄𑘁10
æae1
ǣaee1
iiاِ𑂅𑘂10
īiiاِی𑂆𑘃10
uuاُ𑂇𑘄10
ūuuاُو𑂈𑘅10
ŭ^u1
,rرْ𑘆8
r̥̄,rrړ𑘇8
,lڶ𑘈8
l̥̄,llڵ𑘉8
eeاٝ6
ēeeاے𑂉𑘊10
ê^e2
aiaiاَے𑂊𑘋10
ooاٗ6
ōooاو𑂋𑘌10
ô^o2
auauاَو𑂌𑘍10
 ;mں𑂁𑘽10
.m1
~mں𑂀𑘿N/A6
^n1
.hه𑂂𑘾9
_h2
^h2
_k1
kkك𑂍𑘎10
khkhکھ𑂎𑘏9
ggگ𑂏𑘐9
ghghگھ𑂐𑘑9
 ;nڠ𑂑𑘒10
n̆g1
ccچ𑂒𑘓10
ĉ^c1
chchچھ𑂓𑘔9
jjج𑂔𑘕10
jhjhجھ𑂕𑘖9
ñnڃ𑂖𑘗10
n̆j1
.tٹ𑂗𑘘10
ṭh.thٹھ𑂘𑘙9
.dڈ𑂙𑘚9
.rड़ڑ𑂚ড়ଡ଼4
ḍh.dhڈھ𑂛𑘛9
ṛh.rhढ़ڑھ𑂜ঢ়ଢ଼3
.nڹ𑂝𑘜10
n̆ḍ1
ttت𑂞𑘝10
ththتھ𑂟𑘞9
ddد𑂠𑘟9
dhdhدھ𑂡𑘠9
nnن𑂢𑘡10
n̆d1
ppپ𑂣𑘢10
phphپھ𑂤𑘣9
bbب𑂥𑘤9
bhbhبھ𑂦𑘥9
mmم𑂧𑘦10
m̆b1
_rڔ5
_t1
_nڽ3
_lڎN/A5
yyي𑂨𑘧10
 ;yय़য়3
rrر𑂩𑘨10
^rऱ्1
llل𑂪𑘩10
.lۻਲ਼𑘯9
vvو𑂫𑘪10
ś ;sش𑂮ਸ਼𑘫10
.sښ𑂬𑘬9
ssس𑂭𑘭10
hhه𑂯𑘮10
'7
qqक़قক়ਕ਼ક઼4
k͟h_khख़خখ়ਖ਼ખ઼4
ġ.gग़غগ়ਗ਼ગ઼4
zzज़زজ়ਜ਼જ઼ಜ಼6
ffफ़فফ়ਫ਼ફ઼ಫ಼6
ث1
şص1
ح1
đذ1
ض1
ظ1
ţط1

Relation to other systems

ISO 15919 is an international standard on the romanization of many Brahmic scripts, which was agreed upon in 2001 by a network of the national standards institutes of 157 countries.[citation needed] However, the Hunterian transliteration system is the "national system of romanization in India" and a United Nations expert group noted about ISO 15919 that "there is no evidence of the use of the system either in India or in international cartographic products."[1][2][3]

Another standard, United Nations Romanization Systems for Geographical Names (UNRSGN), was developed by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN)[4] and covers many Brahmic scripts.

The ALA-LC romanization was approved by the Library of Congress and the American Library Association and is a US standard. The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is not a standard (as no specification exists for it) but a convention developed in Europe for the transliteration of Sanskrit rather than the transcription of Brahmic scripts.

As a notable difference, both international standards, ISO 15919 and UNRSGN[5] transliterate anusvara as , while ALA-LC and IAST use for it. However, ISO 15919 provides guidance towards disambiguating between various anusvara situations (such as labial versus dental nasalizations), which is described in the table below.

Comparison with UNRSGN and IAST

The table below shows the differences between ISO 15919, UNRSGN[5] and IAST for Devanagari transliteration.

DevanagariISO 15919UNRSGNIASTComment
ए / ेēeeTo distinguish between long and short 'e' in Dravidian languages, 'e' now represents ऎ / ॆ (short). Note that the use of ē is considered optional in ISO 15919, and using e for (long) is acceptable for languages that do not distinguish long and short e.
ओ / ोōooTo distinguish between long and short 'o' in Dravidian languages, 'o' now represents ऒ / ॊ (short). Note that the use of ō is considered optional in ISO 15919, and using o for (long) is acceptable for languages that do not distinguish long and short o.
ऋ / ृIn ISO 15919, ṛ is used to represent ड़.
ॠ / ॄr̥̄For consistency with r̥
ऌ / ॢIn ISO 15919, ḷ is used to represent .
ॡ / ॣl̥̄l̤̄For consistency with l̥
◌ंISO 15919 has two options about anusvāra. (1) In the simplified nasalization option, an anusvāra is always transliterated as . (2) In the strict nasalization option, anusvāra before a class consonant is transliterated as the class nasal— before k, kh, g, gh, ṅ; ñ before c, ch, j, jh, ñ; before ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ; n before t, th, d, dh, n; m before p, ph, b, bh, m. is sometimes used to specifically represent Gurmukhi Tippi .
ṅ ñ ṇ n m
◌ँVowel nasalization is transliterated as a tilde above the transliterated vowel (over the second vowel in the case of a digraph such as aĩ, aũ), except in Sanskrit.

Font support

Only certain fonts support all Latin Unicode characters for the transliteration of Indic scripts according to this standard. For example, Tahoma supports almost all the characters needed. Arial and Times New Roman font packages that come with Microsoft Office 2007 and later also support most Latin Extended Additional characters like ḑ, ḥ, ḷ, ḻ, ṁ, ṅ, ṇ, ṛ, ṣ and ṭ.

Computer input by selection from a screen

Further Information: Unicode input#Selection from a screen

Applet for character selection

Many systems provide a way to select Unicode characters visually. ISO 14755 refers to this as a screen-selection entry method.

Microsoft Windows has provided a Unicode version of the Character Map program (find it by hitting ⊞ Win+R then type charmap then hit ↵ Enter) since version NT 4.0 – appearing in the consumer edition since XP. This is limited to characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP). Characters are searchable by Unicode character name, and the table can be limited to a particular code block. More advanced third-party tools of the same type are also available (a notable freeware example is BabelMap).

macOS provides a "character palette" with much the same functionality, along with searching by related characters, glyph tables in a font, etc. It can be enabled in the input menu in the menu bar under System Preferences → International → Input Menu (or System Preferences → Language and Text → Input Sources) or can be viewed under Edit → Emoji & Symbols in many programs.

Equivalent tools – such as gucharmap (GNOME) or kcharselect (KDE) – exist on most Linux desktop environments.

See also

References

  1. ^ United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Technical reference manual for the standardization of geographical names, United Nations Publications, 2007, ISBN 978-92-1-161500-5, ... ISO 15919 ... There is no evidence of the use of the system either in India or in international cartographic products ... The Hunterian system is the actually used national system of romanization in India ... 
  2. ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for Asia and the Far East, Volume 2, United Nations, 1955, ... In India the Hunterian system is used, whereby every sound in the local language is uniformly represented by a certain letter in the Roman alphabet ... 
  3. ^ National Library (India), Indian scientific & technical publications, exhibition 1960: a bibliography, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Government of India, 1960, ... The Hunterian system of transliteration, which has international acceptance, has been used ... 
  4. ^ "UNGEGN Working Group on Romanization Systems". www.eki.ee. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
  5. ^ a b "Differences between ISO 15919 and UNRSGN". Working group on Romanization systems. www.eki.ee/wgrs/. March 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2017. 

External links

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