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Updated: 2016-09-30T23:58Z

The ISO international standard ISO 9 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of many Slavic and non-Slavic languages.[1]

The major advantage ISO 9 has over other competing systems is its univocal system of one character for one character equivalents (by the use of diacritics), which faithfully represents the original spelling and allows for reverse transliteration, even if the language is unknown.

Earlier versions of the standard, ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1986, were more closely based on the international scholarly system for linguistics (scientific transliteration), but have diverged in favour of unambiguous transliteration over phonemic representation. The edition of 1995 supersedes the edition of 1986.[1]

ISO 9:1995, or GOST 7.79 System A

[2] The standard features three mapping tables: the first covers contemporary Slavic languages, the second older Slavic orthographies (excluding letters from the first), and the third non-Slavic languages (including most letters from the first). Several Cyrillic characters included in ISO 9 are not available as pre-composed characters in Unicode, neither are some of the transliterations; combining diacritical marks have to be used in these cases. Unicode, on the other hand, includes some historic characters that are not dealt with in ISO 9.

The following combined table shows characters for various Slavic, Iranian, Romance, Turkic, Uralic, Mongolic, Caucasian, Tungusic, Paleosiberian and other languages of the former USSR which are written in Cyrillic.

ISO 9:1995, GOST 7.79 System A
ӒӓÄä00C400E4a diaeresis
Ӓ̄ӓ̄Ạ̈ạ̈00C4+032300E4+0323a diaeresis and dot below
ӐӑĂă01020103a breve
А̄а̄Āā01000101a macron
ӔӕÆæ00C600E6ae ligature
А́а́Áá00C100E1a acute
А̊а̊Åå00C500E5a ring
ЃѓǴǵ01F401F5g acute
ҒғĠġ01200121g dot
ҔҕĞğ011E011Fg breve
Һһ1E241E25h dot
ЂђĐđ01100111d macron
ӖӗĔĕ01140115e breve
ЁёËë00CB00EBe diaeresis
ЄєÊê00CA00EAe circumflex
ЖжŽž017D017Ez caron
ҖҗŽ̦ž̦017D+0326017E+0326z caron and comma below[3]
Ž̧ž̧017D+0327017E+0327z caron and cedilla[3]
ӜӝZ+0304z+0304z macron
ӁӂZ+0306z+0306z breve
ӞӟZ+0308z+0308z diaeresis
ӠӡŹź0179017Az acute
Ѕѕ1E901E91z circumflex
ӢӣĪī012A012Bi macron
И́и́Íí00CD00EDi acute
ӤӥÎî00CE00EEi circumflex
ІіÌì00CC00ECi grave
ЇїÏï00CF00EFi diaeresis
І̄і̄Ǐǐ01CF (012C)01D0 (012D)i caron (or breve)
ЈјǰJ+030C01F0j caron
Ј̵ј̵J+0301j+0301j acute
Ќќ1E301E31k acute
Ӄӄ1E321E33k dot below
ҜҝK+0302k+0302k circumflex
ҠҡǨǩ01E801E9k caron
ҞҟK+0304k+0304k macron
ҚқK+03260326k comma below[3]
Ķķ01360137k cedilla[3]
К̨к̨K+0300k+0300k grave
ЉљL+0302l+0302l circumflex
ԠԡL+0326l+0326l comma below[3]
Ļļ013B013Cl cedilla[3]
ЊњN+0302n+0302n circumflex
ҢңN+0326n+0326n comma below[3]
Ņņ01450146n cedilla[3]
Ӊӊ1E461E47n dot below
Ҥҥ1E441E45n dot
ԊԋǸǹ01F801F9n grave
ԢԣŃń01430144n acute
ӇӈŇň01470148n caron
Н̄н̄N+0304n+0304n macron
ӦӧÖö00D600F6o diaeresis
ӨөÔô00D400F4o circumflex
ӪӫŐő01500151o double acute
Ӧ̄о̄̈Ọ̈ọ̈00D6+032300F6+0323o diaeresis and dot below
ҨҩÒò00D200F2o grave
О́о́Óó00D300F3o acute
О̄о̄Ōō014C014Do macron
ŒœŒœ01520153oe ligature
Ҧҧ1E541E55p acute
ԤԥP+0300p+0300p grave
ҪҫȘș02180219s comma below[3]
Şş015E015Fs cedilla[3]
С̀с̀S+0300s+0300s grave
ЋћĆć01060107c acute
ԎԏT+0300t+0300t grave
Т̌т̌Ťť01640165t caron
ҬҭȚț021A021Bt comma below[3]
Ţţ01620163t cedilla[3]
ӰӱÜü00DC00FCu diaeresis
ӮӯŪū016A016Bu macron
ЎўŬŭ016C016Du breve
ӲӳŰű01700171u double acute
У́у́Úú00DA00FAu acute
Ӱ̄ӱ̄Ụ̈ụ̈00DC+032300FC+0323u diaeresis and dot below
ҮүÙù00D900F9u grave
ҰұU+0307u+0307u dot
Ӱ̄ӱ̄Ụ̄ụ̄016A+0323016B+0323u macron and dot below
ҲҳH+0326h+0326h comma below[3]
1E281E29h cedilla[3]
ҴҵC+0304c+0304c macron
ЏџD+0302d+0302d circumflex
ЧчČč010C010Dc caron
ҶҷC+0326c+0326c comma below[3]
Çç00C700E7c cedilla[3]
ӋӌC+0323c+0323c dot below
ӴӵC+0308c+0308c diaeresis
ҸҹĈĉ01080109c circumflex
Ч̀ч̀C+0300c+0300c grave
ҼҽC+0306c+0306c breve
ҾҿC̨̆c̨̆C+0328+0306c+0328+0306c ogonek[3] and breve
ШшŠš01600161s caron
ЩщŜŝ015C015Ds circumflex
Ъъʺ02BAmodifier letter double prime[4]
ӸӹŸÿ017800FFy diaeresis
Ы̄ы̄Ȳȳ02320233y macron
Ььʹ02B9modifier letter prime[4]
ЭэÈè00C800E8e grave
ӘәA+030Ba+030Ba double acute
ӚӛÀà00C000E0a grave
ЮюÛû00DB00FBu circumflex
Ю̄ю̄Û̄û̄00DB+030400FB+0304u circumflex with macron
ЯяÂâ00C200E2a circumflex
ҐґG+0300g+0300g grave
ѢѣĚě011A011Be caron
ѪѫǍǎ01CD01CEa caron
ѲѳF+0300f+0300f grave
Ѵѵ1EF21EF3y grave
Ӏ2021double dagger


Here is an example transliteration. The text in Cyrillic is the chorus of the hymn of the Russian Federation:

Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Братских народов союз вековой,
Предками данная мудрость народная!
Славься, страна! Мы гордимся тобой!
Slavʹsâ, Otečestvo naše svobodnoe,
Bratskih narodov soûz vekovoj,
Predkami dannaâ mudrostʹ narodnaâ!
Slavʹsâ, strana! My gordimsâ toboj!

GOST 7.79 System B

[2] GOST 7.79 contains two transliteration tables.

System A
one Cyrillic character to one Latin character, some with diacritics – identical to ISO 9:1995
System B
one Cyrillic character to one or many Latin characters without diacritics
GOST 7.79 System B
Ѓ/Ґѓ/ґG`g`ѓ in Macedonian, ґ in Ukrainian
ЁёYoyoin Russian and Belarusian
ЄєYeyein Ukrainian
SѕZ`z`in Macedonian
ИиI, Y`i, y`not in Belarusian, y` for Ukrainian
Й/Jй/јJjј in Macedonian
IіI, I`i, i`i` only before vowels for Old Russian and Old Bulgarian
ЇїYiyiin Ukrainian
ЌќK`k`in Macedonian
ЉљL`l`in Macedonian
ЊњN`n`in Macedonian
ЎўU`u`in Belarusian
ЦцCz, Ccz, сc before i, e, y, j
ЏџDhdhin Macedonian
ЩщShh, Shtshh, shtshh for Russian and Ukrainian, sht for Bulgarian
ЪъA`a`, ``two grave accents for Russian, a` for Bulgarian
ЫыY`y`in Russian and Belarusian
Ьь`grave accent
ЭэE`e`in Russian and Belarusian
ЮюYuyunot in Macedonian
ЯяYaуаnot in Macedonian
ѢѣYeуеin Old Russian and Old Bulgarian
ѲѳFhfhin Old Russian and Old Bulgarian
ѴѵYhyhin Old Russian and Old Bulgarian
ѪѫO`о`in Old Bulgarian

This standard (System B) appears to have been used in 2014 for the transliteration of street names on street signs in Moscow; its unusual appearance and non-intuitive sound values gave rise to criticism in the media.[5]

National adoptions

The verbatim translated text of ISO 9 is adopted as an inter-state standard in the countries listed below (the national designation is shown in parentheses). Other transcription schemes are also used in practice, though.


ISO Recommendation No. 9, published 1954 and revised 1968, is an older version of the standard, with different transliteration for different Slavic languages, reflecting their phonemic differences. It is closer to the original international system of slavist scientific transliteration.

The languages covered are Bulgarian, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Serbian and Macedonian. ISO 9:1995 is shown for comparison.

ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1995
А аA aA aA a
Б бB bB bB b
В вV vV vV v
Г гG gG g, H hG gh for Belarusian and Ukrainian, g else (see table below)
Ґ ґĠ ġG gG̀ g̀in Ukrainian
Д дD dD dD d
Ѓ ѓǴ ǵǴ ǵǴ ǵin Macedonian
Ђ ђĐ đĐ đĐ đin Serbian
Е еE eE eE e
Ё ёË ëË ëË ëin Russian and Belarusian
Є єJe jeJe jeÊ êin Ukrainian
Ж жŽ žŽ ž (Zh zh)Ž žsee table below
З зZ zZ zZ z
Ѕ ѕDz dzDz dzẐ ẑin Macedonian
И иI i, Y yI i, Y yI inot in Belarusian, y for Ukrainian, i else (see table below)
I іI iI i, Ī īÌ ìnot in Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian, archaic in Russian (see table below)
Ї їJi jiÏ ïÏ ïin Ukrainian
Й йJ jJ j (Ĭ ĭ)J jnot in Serbian and Macedonian (see table below)
Ј јJ jJ jJ̌ ǰin Serbian and Macedonian
К кK kK kK k
Л лL lL lL l
Љ љLj ljLj ljL̂ l̂in Serbian and Macedonian
М мM mM mM m
Н нN nN nN n
Њ њNj njNj njN̂ n̂in Serbian and Macedonian
О оO oO oO o
П пP pP pP p
Р рR rR rR r
С сS sS sS s
Т тT tT tT t
Ќ ќḰ ḱḰ ḱḰ ḱin Macedonian
Ћ ћĆ ćĆ ćĆ ćin Serbian
У уU uU uU u
Ў ўŬ ŭŬ ŭŬ ŭin Belarusian
Ф фF fF fF f
Х хH hCh ch, H h (Kh kh)H hh for Serbian and Macedonian, ch else (see table below)
Ц цC cC c (Ts ts)C csee table below
Ч чČ čČ č (Ch ch)Č čsee table below
Џ џDž džDž džD̂ d̂in Serbian and Macedonian
Ш шŠ šŠ š (Sh sh)Š šsee table below
Щ щŠč šč, Št štŠč šč, Št št (Shch shch)Ŝ ŝnot in Belarusian, Serbian and Macedonian, št for Bulgarian, šč else (see table below)
Ъ ъĂ ă, "Ă ă, ʺʺnot in Serbian and Macedonian, archaic in Belarusian and Ukrainian, ă for Bulgarian, ʺ else (see table below)
Ы ыY yY yY yRussian and Belarusian
Ь ьʹʹʹnot in Serbian and Macedonian
Ѣ ѣĚ ěĚ ěĚ ěnot in Serbian and Macedonian, archaic else
Э эĖ ėĖ ėÈ èin Russian and Belarusian
Ю юJu juJu ju (Yu yu)Û ûnot in Serbian and Macedonian (see table below)
Я яJa jaJa ja (Ya ya)Â ânot in Serbian and Macedonian (see table below)
", ’in Belarusian and Ukrainian, archaic in Russian, ’ in Macedonian
Ѫ ѫȦ ȧȦ ȧ, ʺ̣Ǎ ǎarchaic in Bulgarian (see table below)
Ѳ ѳḞ ḟḞ ḟF̀ f̀archaic in Russian
Ѵ ѵẎ ẏẎ ẏỲ ỳarchaic in Russian
ъ and ѫ are not transliterated at the end of a word (where it occurred in the pre-1945 orthography).
Russian and Belarusian
ъ is not transliterated at the end of a word (where it occurred in the pre-1918 orthography).


ISO/R 9:1968 permits some deviations from the main standard. In the table below, they are listed in the columns sub-standard 1 and sub-standard 2.

  • The first sub-standard defines some language-dependent transliterations for Russian (ru), Ukrainian (uk), Belarusian (be) and Bulgarian (bg).
  • The second sub-standard permits, in countries where tradition favours it, a set of alternative transliterations, but only as a group.
CyrillicISO/R 9:1968
variant 1mainvariant 2
гh (uk, be)g
иy (uk)i
іi (uk, be)ī
хch (uk, be, ru)hkh
щšt (bg)ščshch
ъă (bg)ʺ
ѫȧ (bg)ʺ̣

See also


  1. ^ a b "ISO 9:1995: Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters -- Slavic and non-Slavic languages". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 13 Apr 2012. 
  2. ^ a b ГОСТ 7.79-2000: Система стандартов по информации, библиотечному и издательскому делу. Правила транслитерации кирилловского письма латинским алфавитом [GOST 7.79-2000: System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Rules of transliteration of Cyrillic script by Latin alphabet] (in Russian). Retrieved 13 Apr 2012.  - authentic Russian version of ISO 9
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q The “informative” Annex A of ISO 9:1995 uses ISO 5426 0x52 hook to left which can be mapped to Unicode’s comma below U+0326 (while the ISO 5426 also has 0x50 cedilla which can be mapped to Unicode’s cedilla U+0327), it also uses ISO 5426 0x53 hook to right which can be mapped to Unicode’s ogonek U+0328. See for example’s ISO 5426 mapping to Unicode or Joan M. Aliprand’s Finalized Mapping between Characters of ISO 5426 and ISO/IEC 10646-1.
  4. ^ a b ISO 5426 mapping to Unicode; Joan M. Aliprand: Finalized Mapping between Characters of ISO 5426 and ISO/IEC 10646-1; The Unicode Standard: Spacing Modifier Letters.
  5. ^ Москва готовится к оккупации, иначе происходящее не объяснить ("Moscow is preparing for occupation - otherwise one can't explain what goes on")
  6. ^ "Система стандартов по информации, библиотечному и издательскому делу (СИБИД), действующих в Республике Беларусь", item 55 (Sistema standartov po informacii, bibliotečnomu i izdatel'skomu delu (SIBID), dejstvuûŝih v Respublike Belarus')

External links

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