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List of Nobel laureates


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Nobel_laureates
Updated: 2016-10-13T11:02Z

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Nobel laureates receive a gold medal together with a diploma and (as of 2012) 8 million SEK (roughly US$1.2 million, €0.93 million).
Nobel laureates of 2012 Alvin E. Roth, Brian Kobilka, Robert J. Lefkowitz, David J. Wineland, and Serge Haroche during the ceremony

The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation, yearly.[2]

Prize

Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.[2] In 1901, the recipients of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2008, the laureates were awarded a prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK.[4] The awards are presented in Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[5]

In years in which the Nobel Prize is not awarded due to external events or a lack of nominations, the prize money is returned to the funds delegated to the relevant prize.[6] The Nobel Prize was not awarded between 1940 and 1942 due to the outbreak of World War II.[7]

Laureates

Between 1901 and 2015, the Nobel Prizes and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 573 times to 900 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 870 individuals (including 822 men, 48 women) and 23 organizations. Four Nobel laureates were not permitted by their governments to accept the Nobel Prize. Adolf Hitler forbade three Germans, Richard Kuhn (Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939), and Gerhard Domagk (Physiology or Medicine, 1939), from accepting their Nobel Prizes, and the government of the Soviet Union pressured Boris Pasternak (Literature, 1958) to decline his award. Two Nobel laureates, Jean-Paul Sartre (Literature, 1964) and Lê Ðức Thọ (Peace, 1973), declined the award; Sartre declined the award as he declined all official honors, and Lê declined the award due to the situation Vietnam was in at the time.

Six laureates have received more than one prize; of the six, the International Committee of the Red Cross has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times, more than any other.[8] UNHCR has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize twice. Also the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to John Bardeen twice, and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Frederick Sanger. Two laureates have been awarded twice but not in the same field: Marie Curie (Physics and Chemistry) and Linus Pauling (Chemistry and Peace). Among the 870 Nobel laureates, 48 have been women; the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903.[9] She was also the first person (male or female) to be awarded two Nobel Prizes, the second award being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, given in 1911.[8]

List of laureates

YearPhysicsChemistryPhysiology
or Medicine
LiteraturePeaceEconomics
1901Röntgen, WilhelmWilhelm RöntgenHoff, Jacobus Henricus van 'tJacobus Henricus van 't Hoffvon Behring, Emil AdolfEmil Adolf von BehringPrudhomme, SullySully PrudhommeDunant, HenryHenry Dunant;
Passy, FrédéricFrédéric Passy
1902Lorentz, HendrikHendrik Lorentz;
Zeeman, PieterPieter Zeeman
Fischer, Hermann EmilHermann Emil FischerRoss, RonaldRonald RossMommsen, TheodorTheodor MommsenDucommun, ÉlieÉlie Ducommun;
Gobat, Charles AlbertCharles Albert Gobat
1903Becquerel, HenriHenri Becquerel;
Curie, PierrePierre Curie;
Curie, MarieMarie Curie
Arrhenius, SvanteSvante ArrheniusFinsen, Niels RybergNiels Ryberg FinsenBjørnson, BjørnstjerneBjørnstjerne BjørnsonCremer, RandalRandal Cremer
1904Rayleigh, LordLord RayleighRamsay, WilliamWilliam RamsayPavlov, IvanIvan PavlovMistral, FrédéricFrédéric Mistral;
Echegaray, JoséJosé Echegaray
Institut de Droit International
1905Lenard, PhilippPhilipp LenardBaeyer, Adolf vonAdolf von BaeyerKoch, RobertRobert KochSienkiewicz, HenrykHenryk SienkiewiczSuttner, Bertha vonBertha von Suttner
1906Thomson, J. J.J. J. ThomsonMoissan, HenriHenri MoissanGolgi, CamilloCamillo Golgi;
Ramón y Cajal, SantiagoSantiago Ramón y Cajal
Carducci, GiosuèGiosuè CarducciRoosevelt, TheodoreTheodore Roosevelt
1907Michelson, Albert AbrahamAlbert Abraham MichelsonBuchner, EduardEduard BuchnerLaveran, Charles Louis AlphonseCharles Louis Alphonse LaveranKipling, RudyardRudyard KiplingMoneta, Ernesto TeodoroErnesto Teodoro Moneta;
Renault, LouisLouis Renault
1908Lippmann, GabrielGabriel LippmannRutherford, ErnestErnest RutherfordMetchnikoff, ÉlieÉlie Metchnikoff;
Ehrlich, PaulPaul Ehrlich
Eucken, Rudolf ChristophRudolf Christoph EuckenArnoldson, Klas PontusKlas Pontus Arnoldson;
Bajer, FredrikFredrik Bajer
1909Braun, Karl FerdinandKarl Ferdinand Braun;
Marconi, GuglielmoGuglielmo Marconi
Ostwald, WilhelmWilhelm OstwaldKocher, Emil TheodorEmil Theodor KocherLagerlöf, SelmaSelma LagerlöfBeernaert, Auguste Marie FrançoisAuguste Marie François Beernaert;
d'Estournelles de Constant, Paul-Henri-BenjaminPaul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant
1910Waals, Johannes Diderik van derJohannes Diderik van der WaalsWallach, OttoOtto WallachKossel, AlbrechtAlbrecht KosselHeyse, PaulPaul HeyseInternational Peace Bureau
1911Wien, WilhelmWilhelm WienCurie, MarieMarie CurieGullstrand, AllvarAllvar GullstrandMaeterlinck, MauriceMaurice MaeterlinckAsser, TobiasTobias Asser;
Fried, Alfred HermannAlfred Hermann Fried
1912Dalén, GustafGustaf DalénGrignard, VictorVictor Grignard;
Sabatier, PaulPaul Sabatier
Carrel, AlexisAlexis CarrelHauptmann, GerhartGerhart HauptmannRoot, ElihuElihu Root
1913Kamerlingh Onnes, HeikeHeike Kamerlingh OnnesWerner, AlfredAlfred WernerRichet, CharlesCharles RichetTagore, RabindranathRabindranath TagoreLa Fontaine, HenriHenri La Fontaine
1914von Laue, MaxMax von LaueRichards, Theodore WilliamTheodore William RichardsBárány, RobertRobert BárányNoneNone
1915Bragg, William HenryWilliam Henry Bragg;
Bragg, William LawrenceWilliam Lawrence Bragg
Willstätter, RichardRichard WillstätterNoneRolland, RomainRomain RollandNone
1916NoneNoneNoneHeidenstam, Verner vonVerner von HeidenstamNone
1917Barkla, Charles GloverCharles Glover BarklaNoneNoneGjellerup, Karl AdolphKarl Adolph Gjellerup;
Pontoppidan, HenrikHenrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross
1918Planck, MaxMax PlanckHaber, FritzFritz HaberNoneNoneNone
1919Stark, JohannesJohannes StarkNoneBordet, JulesJules BordetSpitteler, CarlCarl SpittelerWilson, WoodrowWoodrow Wilson
1920Guillaume, Charles ÉdouardCharles Édouard GuillaumeNernst, WaltherWalther NernstKrogh, AugustAugust KroghHamsun, KnutKnut HamsunBourgeois, LéonLéon Bourgeois
1921Einstein, AlbertAlbert EinsteinSoddy, FrederickFrederick SoddyNoneFrance, AnatoleAnatole FranceBranting, HjalmarHjalmar Branting;
Lange, Christian LousChristian Lous Lange
1922Bohr, NielsNiels BohrAston, Francis WilliamFrancis William AstonHill, ArchibaldArchibald Hill;
Meyerhof, Otto FritzOtto Fritz Meyerhof
Benavente, JacintoJacinto BenaventeNansen, FridtjofFridtjof Nansen
1923Millikan, Robert AndrewsRobert Andrews MillikanPregl, FritzFritz PreglBanting, FrederickFrederick Banting;
Macleod, John James RickardJohn James Rickard Macleod
Yeats, W. B.W. B. YeatsNone
1924Siegbahn, ManneManne SiegbahnNoneEinthoven, WillemWillem EinthovenReymont, WładysławWładysław ReymontNone
1925Franck, JamesJames Franck;
Hertz, Gustav LudwigGustav Ludwig Hertz
Zsigmondy, Richard AdolfRichard Adolf ZsigmondyNoneShaw, George BernardGeorge Bernard ShawChamberlain, AustenAusten Chamberlain;
Dawes, Charles G.Charles G. Dawes
1926Perrin, Jean BaptisteJean Baptiste PerrinSvedberg, TheodorTheodor SvedbergFibiger, JohannesJohannes FibigerDeledda, GraziaGrazia DeleddaBriand, AristideAristide Briand;
Stresemann, GustavGustav Stresemann
1927Compton, ArthurArthur Compton;
Wilson, Charles Thomson ReesCharles Thomson Rees Wilson
Wieland, Heinrich OttoHeinrich Otto WielandWagner-Jauregg, JuliusJulius Wagner-JaureggBergson, HenriHenri BergsonBuisson, FerdinandFerdinand Buisson;
Quidde, LudwigLudwig Quidde
1928Richardson, Owen WillansOwen Willans RichardsonWindaus, Adolf Otto ReinholdAdolf Otto Reinhold WindausNicolle, CharlesCharles NicolleUndset, SigridSigrid UndsetNone
1929Broglie, Louis deLouis de BroglieHarden, ArthurArthur Harden;
von Euler-Chelpin, HansHans von Euler-Chelpin
Eijkman, ChristiaanChristiaan Eijkman;
Hopkins, Frederick GowlandFrederick Gowland Hopkins
Mann, ThomasThomas MannKellogg, Frank B.Frank B. Kellogg
1930Raman, C. V.C. V. RamanFischer, HansHans FischerLandsteiner, KarlKarl LandsteinerLewis, SinclairSinclair LewisSöderblom, NathanNathan Söderblom
1931NoneBosch, CarlCarl Bosch;
Bergius, FriedrichFriedrich Bergius
Warburg, Otto HeinrichOtto Heinrich WarburgKarlfeldt, Erik AxelErik Axel KarlfeldtAddams, JaneJane Addams;
Butler, Nicholas MurrayNicholas Murray Butler
1932Heisenberg, WernerWerner HeisenbergLangmuir, IrvingIrving LangmuirSherrington, Charles ScottCharles Scott Sherrington;
Adrian, EdgarEdgar Adrian
Galsworthy, JohnJohn GalsworthyNone
1933Schrödinger, ErwinErwin Schrödinger;
Dirac, PaulPaul Dirac
NoneMorgan, Thomas HuntThomas Hunt MorganBunin, IvanIvan BuninAngell, NormanNorman Angell
1934NoneUrey, HaroldHarold UreyWhipple, GeorgeGeorge Whipple;
Minot, GeorgeGeorge Minot;
Murphy, William P.William P. Murphy
Pirandello, LuigiLuigi PirandelloHenderson, ArthurArthur Henderson
1935Chadwick, JamesJames ChadwickJoliot-Curie, FrédéricFrédéric Joliot-Curie;
Joliot-Curie, IrèneIrène Joliot-Curie
Spemann, HansHans SpemannNonevon Ossietzky, CarlCarl von Ossietzky
1936Hess, Victor FrancisVictor Francis Hess;
Anderson, Carl DavidCarl David Anderson
Debye, PeterPeter DebyeDale, Henry HallettHenry Hallett Dale;
Loewi, OttoOtto Loewi
O'Neill, EugeneEugene O'NeillLamas, Carlos SaavedraCarlos Saavedra Lamas
1937Davisson, ClintonClinton Davisson;
Thomson, George PagetGeorge Paget Thomson
Haworth, NormanNorman Haworth;
Karrer, PaulPaul Karrer
Szent-Györgyi, AlbertAlbert Szent-Györgyidu Gard, Roger MartinRoger Martin du GardCecil of Chelwood, The ViscountThe Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
1938Fermi, EnricoEnrico FermiKuhn, RichardRichard Kuhn[A]Heymans, CorneilleCorneille HeymansBuck, Pearl S.Pearl S. BuckNansen International Office For Refugees
1939Lawrence, ErnestErnest LawrenceButenandt, AdolfAdolf Butenandt;[A]
Ružička, LeopoldLeopold Ružička
Domagk, GerhardGerhard Domagk[A]Sillanpää, Frans EemilFrans Eemil SillanpääNone
1940NoneNoneNoneNoneNone
1941NoneNoneNoneNoneNone
1942NoneNoneNoneNoneNone
1943Stern, OttoOtto SternHevesy, George deGeorge de HevesyDam, HenrikHenrik Dam;
Doisy, Edward AdelbertEdward Adelbert Doisy
NoneNone
1944Rabi, Isidor IsaacIsidor Isaac RabiHahn, OttoOtto HahnErlanger, JosephJoseph Erlanger;
Gasser, Herbert SpencerHerbert Spencer Gasser
Jensen, Johannes VilhelmJohannes Vilhelm JensenInternational Committee of the Red Cross
1945Pauli, WolfgangWolfgang PauliVirtanen, Artturi IlmariArtturi Ilmari VirtanenFleming, AlexanderAlexander Fleming;
Chain, Ernst BorisErnst Boris Chain;
Florey, HowardHoward Florey
Mistral, GabrielaGabriela MistralHull, CordellCordell Hull
1946Bridgman, Percy WilliamsPercy Williams BridgmanSumner, James B.James B. Sumner;
Northrop, John HowardJohn Howard Northrop;
Stanley, Wendell MeredithWendell Meredith Stanley
Muller, Hermann JosephHermann Joseph MullerHesse, HermannHermann HesseBalch, Emily GreeneEmily Greene Balch;
Mott, JohnJohn Mott
1947Appleton, Edward VictorEdward Victor AppletonRobinson, RobertRobert RobinsonCori, Carl FerdinandCarl Ferdinand Cori;
Cori, GertyGerty Cori;
Houssay, BernardoBernardo Houssay
Gide, AndréAndré GideFriends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee
1948Blackett, PatrickPatrick BlackettTiselius, ArneArne TiseliusMüller, Paul HermannPaul Hermann MüllerEliot, T. S.T. S. EliotNone[B]
1949Yukawa, HidekiHideki YukawaGiauque, WilliamWilliam GiauqueHess, Walter RudolfWalter Rudolf Hess;
Moniz, António EgasAntónio Egas Moniz
Faulkner, WilliamWilliam FaulknerBoyd Orr, JohnJohn Boyd Orr
1950Powell, C. F.C. F. PowellDiels, OttoOtto Diels;
Alder, KurtKurt Alder
Hench, Philip ShowalterPhilip Showalter Hench;
Kendall, Edward CalvinEdward Calvin Kendall;
Reichstein, TadeusTadeus Reichstein
Russell, BertrandBertrand RussellBunche, RalphRalph Bunche
1951Cockcroft, JohnJohn Cockcroft;
Walton, ErnestErnest Walton
McMillan, EdwinEdwin McMillan;
Seaborg, Glenn T.Glenn T. Seaborg
Theiler, MaxMax TheilerLagerkvist, PärPär LagerkvistJouhaux, LéonLéon Jouhaux
1952Bloch, FelixFelix Bloch;
Purcell, Edward MillsEdward Mills Purcell
Martin, Archer John PorterArcher John Porter Martin;
Synge, Richard Laurence MillingtonRichard Laurence Millington Synge
Waksman, SelmanSelman WaksmanMauriac, FrançoisFrançois MauriacSchweitzer, AlbertAlbert Schweitzer
1953Zernike, FritsFrits ZernikeStaudinger, HermannHermann StaudingerKrebs, Hans AdolfHans Adolf Krebs;
Lipmann, Fritz AlbertFritz Albert Lipmann
Churchill, WinstonWinston ChurchillMarshall, GeorgeGeorge Marshall
1954Born, MaxMax Born;
Bothe, WaltherWalther Bothe
Pauling, LinusLinus PaulingEnders, John FranklinJohn Franklin Enders;
Robbins, Frederick ChapmanFrederick Chapman Robbins;
Weller, Thomas HuckleThomas Huckle Weller
Hemingway, ErnestErnest HemingwayUnited Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1955Lamb, WillisWillis Lamb;
Kusch, PolykarpPolykarp Kusch
du Vigneaud, VincentVincent du VigneaudTheorell, HugoHugo TheorellLaxness, HalldórHalldór LaxnessNone
1956Bardeen, JohnJohn Bardeen;
Brattain, Walter HouserWalter Houser Brattain;
Shockley, WilliamWilliam Shockley
Hinshelwood, Cyril NormanCyril Norman Hinshelwood;
Semyonov, NikolayNikolay Semyonov
Cournand, André FrédéricAndré Frédéric Cournand;
Forssmann, WernerWerner Forssmann;
Richards, Dickinson W.Dickinson W. Richards
Jiménez, Juan RamónJuan Ramón JiménezNone
1957Yang, Chen NingChen Ning Yang;
Lee, Tsung-DaoTsung-Dao Lee
Todd, The LordThe Lord ToddBovet, DanielDaniel BovetCamus, AlbertAlbert CamusPearson, Lester B.Lester B. Pearson
1958Cherenkov, PavelPavel Cherenkov;
Frank, IlyaIlya Frank;
Tamm, IgorIgor Tamm
Sanger, FrederickFrederick SangerBeadle, George WellsGeorge Wells Beadle;
Tatum, Edward LawrieEdward Lawrie Tatum;
Lederberg, JoshuaJoshua Lederberg
Pasternak, BorisBoris Pasternak[C]Pire, DominiqueDominique Pire
1959Segrè, Emilio G.Emilio G. Segrè;
Chamberlain, OwenOwen Chamberlain
Heyrovský, JaroslavJaroslav HeyrovskýKornberg, ArthurArthur Kornberg;
Ochoa, SeveroSevero Ochoa
Quasimodo, SalvatoreSalvatore QuasimodoNoel-Baker, PhilipPhilip Noel-Baker
1960Glaser, Donald A.Donald A. GlaserLibby, WillardWillard LibbyBurnet, Frank MacfarlaneFrank Macfarlane Burnet;
Medawar, PeterPeter Medawar
Perse, Saint-JohnSaint-John PerseLutuli, AlbertAlbert Lutuli
1961Hofstadter, RobertRobert Hofstadter;
Mössbauer, RudolfRudolf Mössbauer
Calvin, MelvinMelvin Calvinvon Békésy, GeorgGeorg von BékésyAndrić, IvoIvo AndrićHammarskjöld, DagDag Hammarskjöld
1962Landau, LevLev LandauPerutz, MaxMax Perutz;
Kendrew, JohnJohn Kendrew
Crick, FrancisFrancis Crick;
Watson, James D.James D. Watson;
Wilkins, MauriceMaurice Wilkins
Steinbeck, JohnJohn SteinbeckPauling, LinusLinus Pauling
1963Wigner, EugeneEugene Wigner;
Goeppert-Mayer, MariaMaria Goeppert-Mayer;
Jensen, J. Hans D.J. Hans D. Jensen
Ziegler, KarlKarl Ziegler;
Natta, GiulioGiulio Natta
Eccles, JohnJohn Eccles;
Hodgkin, Alan LloydAlan Lloyd Hodgkin;
Huxley, AndrewAndrew Huxley
Seferis, GiorgosGiorgos SeferisInternational Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies
1964Townes, Charles HardCharles Hard Townes;
Basov, NikolayNikolay Basov;
Prokhorov, AlexanderAlexander Prokhorov
Hodgkin, DorothyDorothy HodgkinBloch, Konrad EmilKonrad Emil Bloch;
Lynen, Feodor Felix KonradFeodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Sartre, Jean-PaulJean-Paul Sartre[D]King, Jr., Martin LutherMartin Luther King, Jr.
1965Tomonaga, Sin-ItiroSin-Itiro Tomonaga;
Schwinger, JulianJulian Schwinger;
Feynman, RichardRichard Feynman
Woodward, Robert BurnsRobert Burns WoodwardJacob, FrançoisFrançois Jacob;
Lwoff, André MichelAndré Michel Lwoff;
Monod, JacquesJacques Monod
Sholokhov, MikhailMikhail SholokhovUnited Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
1966Kastler, AlfredAlfred KastlerMulliken, Robert S.Robert S. MullikenRous, Francis PeytonFrancis Peyton Rous;
Huggins, Charles BrentonCharles Brenton Huggins
Agnon, Shmuel YosefShmuel Yosef Agnon;
Sachs, NellyNelly Sachs
None
1967Bethe, HansHans BetheEigen, ManfredManfred Eigen;
Norrish, Ronald George WreyfordRonald George Wreyford Norrish;
Porter, GeorgeGeorge Porter
Granit, RagnarRagnar Granit;
Hartline, Haldan KefferHaldan Keffer Hartline;
Wald, GeorgeGeorge Wald
Asturias, Miguel ÁngelMiguel Ángel AsturiasNone
1968Alvarez, Luis WalterLuis Walter AlvarezOnsager, LarsLars OnsagerHolley, Robert W.Robert W. Holley;
Khorana, Har GobindHar Gobind Khorana;
Nirenberg, Marshall WarrenMarshall Warren Nirenberg
Kawabata, YasunariYasunari KawabataCassin, RenéRené Cassin
1969Gell-Mann, MurrayMurray Gell-MannBarton, DerekDerek Barton;
Hassel, OddOdd Hassel
Delbrück, MaxMax Delbrück;
Hershey, AlfredAlfred Hershey;
Luria, SalvadorSalvador Luria
Beckett, SamuelSamuel BeckettInternational Labour OrganizationFrisch, RagnarRagnar Frisch;
Tinbergen, JanJan Tinbergen
1970Alfvén, HannesHannes Alfvén;
Néel, LouisLouis Néel
Leloir, Luis FedericoLuis Federico LeloirAxelrod, JuliusJulius Axelrod;
von Euler, UlfUlf von Euler;
Katz, BernardBernard Katz
Solzhenitsyn, AleksandrAleksandr SolzhenitsynBorlaug, NormanNorman BorlaugSamuelson, PaulPaul Samuelson
1971Gabor, DennisDennis GaborHerzberg, GerhardGerhard HerzbergSutherland, Jr., Earl WilburEarl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr.Neruda, PabloPablo NerudaBrandt, WillyWilly BrandtKuznets, SimonSimon Kuznets
1972Bardeen, JohnJohn Bardeen;
Cooper, LeonLeon Cooper;
Schrieffer, John RobertJohn Robert Schrieffer
Anfinsen, Christian B.Christian B. Anfinsen;
Moore, StanfordStanford Moore;
Stein, William HowardWilliam Howard Stein
Edelman, GeraldGerald Edelman;
Porter, Rodney RobertRodney Robert Porter
Böll, HeinrichHeinrich BöllNoneHicks, JohnJohn Hicks;
Arrow, KennethKenneth Arrow
1973Esaki, LeoLeo Esaki;
Giaever, IvarIvar Giaever;
Josephson, Brian DavidBrian David Josephson
Fischer, Ernst OttoErnst Otto Fischer;
Wilkinson, GeoffreyGeoffrey Wilkinson
von Frisch, KarlKarl von Frisch;
Lorenz, KonradKonrad Lorenz;
Tinbergen, NikolaasNikolaas Tinbergen
White, PatrickPatrick WhiteKissinger, HenryHenry Kissinger;
Duc Tho, LeLe Duc Tho[E]
Leontief, WassilyWassily Leontief
1974Ryle, MartinMartin Ryle;
Hewish, AntonyAntony Hewish
Flory, PaulPaul FloryClaude, AlbertAlbert Claude;
de Duve, ChristianChristian de Duve;
Palade, George EmilGeorge Emil Palade
Johnson, EyvindEyvind Johnson;
Martinson, HarryHarry Martinson
MacBride, SeánSeán MacBride;
Satō, EisakuEisaku Satō
Myrdal, GunnarGunnar Myrdal;
Hayek, FriedrichFriedrich Hayek
1975Bohr, AageAage Bohr;
Mottelson, Ben RoyBen Roy Mottelson;
Rainwater, JamesJames Rainwater
Cornforth, JohnJohn Cornforth;
Prelog, VladimirVladimir Prelog
Baltimore, DavidDavid Baltimore;
Dulbecco, RenatoRenato Dulbecco;
Temin, Howard MartinHoward Martin Temin
Montale, EugenioEugenio MontaleSakharov, AndreiAndrei SakharovKantorovich, LeonidLeonid Kantorovich;
Koopmans, TjallingTjalling Koopmans
1976Richter, BurtonBurton Richter;
Ting, Samuel C. C.Samuel C. C. Ting
Lipscomb, WilliamWilliam LipscombBlumberg, Baruch SamuelBaruch Samuel Blumberg;
Gajdusek, Daniel CarletonDaniel Carleton Gajdusek
Bellow, SaulSaul BellowWilliams, BettyBetty Williams;
Maguire, MaireadMairead Maguire
Friedman, MiltonMilton Friedman
1977Anderson, Philip WarrenPhilip Warren Anderson;
Mott, Nevill FrancisNevill Francis Mott;
Van Vleck, John HasbrouckJohn Hasbrouck Van Vleck
Prigogine, IlyaIlya PrigogineGuillemin, RogerRoger Guillemin;
Schally, AndrewAndrew Schally;
Yalow, Rosalyn SussmanRosalyn Sussman Yalow
Aleixandre, VicenteVicente AleixandreAmnesty InternationalOhlin, BertilBertil Ohlin;
Meade, JamesJames Meade
1978Kapitsa, PyotrPyotr Kapitsa;
Penzias, Arno AllanArno Allan Penzias;
Wilson, Robert WoodrowRobert Woodrow Wilson
Mitchell, Peter D.Peter D. MitchellArber, WernerWerner Arber;
Nathans, DanielDaniel Nathans;
Smith, Hamilton O.Hamilton O. Smith
Singer, Isaac BashevisIsaac Bashevis SingerSadat, AnwarAnwar Sadat;
Begin, MenachemMenachem Begin
Simon, Herbert A.Herbert A. Simon
1979Glashow, Sheldon LeeSheldon Lee Glashow;
Salam, AbdusAbdus Salam;
Weinberg, StevenSteven Weinberg
Brown, Herbert C.Herbert C. Brown;
Wittig, GeorgGeorg Wittig
Cormack, Allan McLeodAllan McLeod Cormack;
Hounsfield, GodfreyGodfrey Hounsfield
Elytis, OdysseasOdysseas ElytisTeresa, MotherMother TeresaSchultz, TheodoreTheodore Schultz;
Lewis, ArthurArthur Lewis
1980Cronin, JamesJames Cronin;
Fitch, Val LogsdonVal Logsdon Fitch
Berg, PaulPaul Berg;
Gilbert, WalterWalter Gilbert;
Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger
Benacerraf, BarujBaruj Benacerraf;
Dausset, JeanJean Dausset;
Snell, George DavisGeorge Davis Snell
Miłosz, CzesławCzesław MiłoszEsquivel, Adolfo PérezAdolfo Pérez EsquivelKlein, LawrenceLawrence Klein
1981Bloembergen, NicolaasNicolaas Bloembergen;
Schawlow, Arthur LeonardArthur Leonard Schawlow;
Siegbahn, KaiKai Siegbahn
Fukui, KenichiKenichi Fukui;
Hoffmann, RoaldRoald Hoffmann
Sperry, Roger WolcottRoger Wolcott Sperry;
Hubel, David H.David H. Hubel;
Wiesel, TorstenTorsten Wiesel
Canetti, EliasElias CanettiUnited Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesTobin, JamesJames Tobin
1982Wilson, Kenneth G.Kenneth G. WilsonKlug, AaronAaron KlugBergström, SuneSune Bergström;
Samuelsson, Bengt I.Bengt I. Samuelsson;
Vane, JohnJohn Vane
Márquez, Gabriel GarcíaGabriel García MárquezMyrdal, AlvaAlva Myrdal;
Robles, Alfonso GarcíaAlfonso García Robles
Stigler, GeorgeGeorge Stigler
1983Chandrasekhar, SubrahmanyanSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar;
Fowler, William AlfredWilliam Alfred Fowler
Taube, HenryHenry TaubeMcClintock, BarbaraBarbara McClintockGolding, WilliamWilliam GoldingWałęsa, LechLech WałęsaDebreu, GérardGérard Debreu
1984Rubbia, CarloCarlo Rubbia;
van der Meer, SimonSimon van der Meer
Merrifield, Robert BruceRobert Bruce MerrifieldJerne, Niels KajNiels Kaj Jerne;
Köhler, Georges J. F.Georges J. F. Köhler;
Milstein, CésarCésar Milstein
Seifert, JaroslavJaroslav SeifertTutu, DesmondDesmond TutuStone, RichardRichard Stone
1985von Klitzing, KlausKlaus von KlitzingHauptman, Herbert A.Herbert A. Hauptman;
Karle, JeromeJerome Karle
Brown, Michael StuartMichael Stuart Brown;
Goldstein, Joseph L.Joseph L. Goldstein
Simon, ClaudeClaude SimonInternational Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear WarModigliani, FrancoFranco Modigliani
1986Ruska, ErnstErnst Ruska;
Binnig, GerdGerd Binnig;
Rohrer, HeinrichHeinrich Rohrer
Herschbach, Dudley R.Dudley R. Herschbach;
Lee, Yuan T.Yuan T. Lee;
Polanyi, JohnJohn Polanyi
Cohen, StanleyStanley Cohen;
Levi-Montalcini, RitaRita Levi-Montalcini
Soyinka, WoleWole SoyinkaWiesel, ElieElie WieselBuchanan, James M.James M. Buchanan
1987Bednorz, Johannes GeorgJohannes Georg Bednorz;
Müller, Karl AlexanderKarl Alexander Müller
Cram, Donald J.Donald J. Cram;
Lehn, Jean-MarieJean-Marie Lehn;
Pedersen, Charles J.Charles J. Pedersen
Tonegawa, SusumuSusumu TonegawaBrodsky, JosephJoseph BrodskyArias, ÓscarÓscar AriasSolow, RobertRobert Solow
1988Lederman, Leon M.Leon M. Lederman;
Schwartz, MelvinMelvin Schwartz;
Steinberger, JackJack Steinberger
Deisenhofer, JohannJohann Deisenhofer;
Huber, RobertRobert Huber;
Michel, HartmutHartmut Michel
Black, James W.James W. Black;
Elion, Gertrude B.Gertrude B. Elion;
Hitchings, George H.George H. Hitchings
Mahfouz, NaguibNaguib MahfouzUnited Nations Peace-Keeping ForcesAllais, MauriceMaurice Allais
1989Ramsey, Jr., Norman FosterNorman Foster Ramsey, Jr.;
Dehmelt, Hans GeorgHans Georg Dehmelt;
Paul, WolfgangWolfgang Paul
Altman, SidneySidney Altman;
Cech, ThomasThomas Cech
Bishop, J. MichaelJ. Michael Bishop;
Varmus, Harold E.Harold E. Varmus
Cela, Camilo JoséCamilo José CelaGyatso (The Dalai Lama), TenzinTenzin Gyatso (The Dalai Lama)Haavelmo, TrygveTrygve Haavelmo
1990Friedman, Jerome IsaacJerome Isaac Friedman;
Kendall, Henry WayHenry Way Kendall;
Taylor, Richard E.Richard E. Taylor
Corey, Elias JamesElias James CoreyMurray, JosephJoseph Murray;
Thomas, E. DonnallE. Donnall Thomas
Paz, OctavioOctavio PazGorbachev, MikhailMikhail GorbachevMarkowitz, HarryHarry Markowitz;
Miller, MertonMerton Miller;
Sharpe, William F.William F. Sharpe
1991Gennes, Pierre-Gilles dePierre-Gilles de GennesErnst, Richard R.Richard R. ErnstNeher, ErwinErwin Neher;
Sakmann, BertBert Sakmann
Gordimer, NadineNadine GordimerSuu Kyi, Aung SanAung San Suu KyiCoase, RonaldRonald Coase
1992Charpak, GeorgesGeorges CharpakMarcus, Rudolph A.Rudolph A. MarcusFischer, Edmond H.Edmond H. Fischer;
Krebs, Edwin G.Edwin G. Krebs
Walcott, DerekDerek WalcottMenchú, RigobertaRigoberta MenchúBecker, GaryGary Becker
1993Hulse, Russell AlanRussell Alan Hulse;
Taylor, Jr., Joseph HootonJoseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.
Mullis, KaryKary Mullis;
Smith, MichaelMichael Smith
Roberts, Richard J.Richard J. Roberts;
Sharp, Phillip AllenPhillip Allen Sharp
Morrison, ToniToni MorrisonMandela, NelsonNelson Mandela;
de Klerk, F. W.F. W. de Klerk
Fogel, RobertRobert Fogel;
North, DouglassDouglass North
1994Brockhouse, BertramBertram Brockhouse;
Shull, CliffordClifford Shull
Olah, George AndrewGeorge Andrew OlahGilman, Alfred G.Alfred G. Gilman;
Rodbell, MartinMartin Rodbell
Ōe, KenzaburōKenzaburō ŌeArafat, YasserYasser Arafat;
Peres, ShimonShimon Peres;
Rabin, YitzhakYitzhak Rabin
Harsanyi, JohnJohn Harsanyi;
Nash, Jr., John ForbesJohn Forbes Nash, Jr.;
Selten, ReinhardReinhard Selten
1995Perl, Martin LewisMartin Lewis Perl;
Reines, FrederickFrederick Reines
Crutzen, Paul J.Paul J. Crutzen;
Molina, Mario J.Mario J. Molina;
Rowland, Frank SherwoodFrank Sherwood Rowland
Lewis, Edward B.Edward B. Lewis;
Nüsslein-Volhard, ChristianeChristiane Nüsslein-Volhard;
Wieschaus, Eric F.Eric F. Wieschaus
Heaney, SeamusSeamus HeaneyRotblat, JosephJoseph Rotblat;
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Lucas, Jr., RobertRobert Lucas, Jr.
1996Lee, DavidDavid Lee;
Osheroff, DouglasDouglas Osheroff;
Richardson, Robert ColemanRobert Coleman Richardson
Curl Jr., Robert F.Robert F. Curl Jr.;
Kroto, HarryHarry Kroto;
Smalley, RichardRichard Smalley
Doherty, Peter C.Peter C. Doherty;
Zinkernagel, Rolf M.Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Szymborska, WisławaWisława SzymborskaBelo, Carlos Filipe XimenesCarlos Filipe Ximenes Belo;
Ramos-Horta, JoséJosé Ramos-Horta
Mirrlees, JamesJames Mirrlees;
Vickrey, WilliamWilliam Vickrey
1997Chu, StevenSteven Chu;
Cohen-Tannoudji, ClaudeClaude Cohen-Tannoudji;
Phillips, William DanielWilliam Daniel Phillips
Boyer, Paul D.Paul D. Boyer;
Walker, John E.John E. Walker;
Skou, Jens ChristianJens Christian Skou
Prusiner, Stanley B.Stanley B. PrusinerFo, DarioDario FoInternational Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Williams, JodyJody Williams
Merton, Robert C.Robert C. Merton;
Scholes, MyronMyron Scholes
1998Laughlin, Robert B.Robert B. Laughlin;
Störmer, Horst LudwigHorst Ludwig Störmer;
Tsui, Daniel C.Daniel C. Tsui
Kohn, WalterWalter Kohn;
Pople, JohnJohn Pople
Furchgott, Robert F.Robert F. Furchgott;
Ignarro, LouisLouis Ignarro;
Murad, FeridFerid Murad
Saramago, JoséJosé SaramagoHume, JohnJohn Hume;
Trimble, DavidDavid Trimble
Sen, AmartyaAmartya Sen
1999Hooft, Gerard 'tGerard 't Hooft;
Veltman, Martinus J. G.Martinus J. G. Veltman
Zewail, AhmedAhmed ZewailBlobel, GünterGünter BlobelGrass, GünterGünter GrassMédecins Sans FrontièresMundell, RobertRobert Mundell
2000Alferov, ZhoresZhores Alferov;
Kroemer, HerbertHerbert Kroemer;
Kilby, JackJack Kilby
Heeger, Alan J.Alan J. Heeger;
MacDiarmid, AlanAlan MacDiarmid;
Shirakawa, HidekiHideki Shirakawa
Carlsson, ArvidArvid Carlsson;
Greengard, PaulPaul Greengard;
Kandel, EricEric Kandel
Xingjian, GaoGao XingjianDae-jung, KimKim Dae-jungHeckman, JamesJames Heckman;
McFadden, DanielDaniel McFadden
2001Cornell, Eric AllinEric Allin Cornell;
Ketterle, WolfgangWolfgang Ketterle;
Wieman, CarlCarl Wieman
Knowles, William StandishWilliam Standish Knowles;
Noyori, RyōjiRyōji Noyori;
Sharpless, Karl BarryKarl Barry Sharpless
Hartwell, Leland H.Leland H. Hartwell;
Hunt, TimTim Hunt;
Nurse, PaulPaul Nurse
Naipaul, V. S.V. S. NaipaulUnited Nations;
Annan, KofiKofi Annan
Akerlof, GeorgeGeorge Akerlof;
Spence, MichaelMichael Spence;
Stiglitz, JosephJoseph Stiglitz
2002Davis, Jr., RaymondRaymond Davis, Jr.;
Koshiba, MasatoshiMasatoshi Koshiba;
Giacconi, RiccardoRiccardo Giacconi
Fenn, JohnJohn Fenn;
Tanaka, KoichiKoichi Tanaka;
Wüthrich, KurtKurt Wüthrich
Brenner, SydneySydney Brenner;
Horvitz, H. RobertH. Robert Horvitz;
Sulston, JohnJohn Sulston
Kertész, ImreImre KertészCarter, JimmyJimmy CarterKahneman, DanielDaniel Kahneman;
Smith, Vernon L.Vernon L. Smith
2003Abrikosov, Alexei AlexeyevichAlexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov;
Ginzburg, VitalyVitaly Ginzburg;
Leggett, Anthony JamesAnthony James Leggett
Agre, PeterPeter Agre;
MacKinnon, RoderickRoderick MacKinnon
Lauterbur, PaulPaul Lauterbur;
Mansfield, PeterPeter Mansfield
Coetzee, J. M.J. M. CoetzeeEbadi, ShirinShirin EbadiEngle, Robert F.Robert F. Engle;
Granger, CliveClive Granger
2004Gross, DavidDavid Gross;
Politzer, Hugh DavidHugh David Politzer;
Wilczek, FrankFrank Wilczek
Ciechanover, AaronAaron Ciechanover;
Hershko, AvramAvram Hershko;
Rose, IrwinIrwin Rose
Axel, RichardRichard Axel;
Buck, Linda B.Linda B. Buck
Jelinek, ElfriedeElfriede JelinekMaathai, WangariWangari MaathaiKydland, Finn E.Finn E. Kydland;
Prescott, Edward C.Edward C. Prescott
2005Glauber, Roy J.Roy J. Glauber;
Hall, John L.John L. Hall;
Hänsch, Theodor W.Theodor W. Hänsch
Chauvin, YvesYves Chauvin;
Grubbs, Robert H.Robert H. Grubbs;
Schrock, Richard R.Richard R. Schrock
Marshall, BarryBarry Marshall;
Warren, RobinRobin Warren
Pinter, HaroldHarold PinterInternational Atomic Energy Agency;
ElBaradei, MohamedMohamed ElBaradei
Aumann, RobertRobert Aumann;
Schelling, ThomasThomas Schelling
2006Mather, John C.John C. Mather;
Smoot, GeorgeGeorge Smoot
Kornberg, Roger D.Roger D. KornbergFire, AndrewAndrew Fire;
Mello, CraigCraig Mello
Pamuk, OrhanOrhan PamukYunus, MuhammadMuhammad Yunus;
Grameen Bank
Phelps, EdmundEdmund Phelps
2007Fert, AlbertAlbert Fert;
Grünberg, PeterPeter Grünberg
Ertl, GerhardGerhard ErtlCapecchi, MarioMario Capecchi;
Evans, MartinMartin Evans;
Smithies, OliverOliver Smithies
Lessing, DorisDoris LessingIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
Gore, AlAl Gore
Hurwicz, LeonidLeonid Hurwicz;
Maskin, EricEric Maskin;
Myerson, RogerRoger Myerson
2008Nambu, YoichiroYoichiro Nambu;
Kobayashi, MakotoMakoto Kobayashi;
Maskawa, ToshihideToshihide Maskawa
Shimomura, OsamuOsamu Shimomura;
Chalfie, MartinMartin Chalfie;
Tsien, Roger Y.Roger Y. Tsien
zur Hausen, HaraldHarald zur Hausen;
Barré-Sinoussi, FrançoiseFrançoise Barré-Sinoussi;
Montagnier, LucLuc Montagnier
Le Clézio, J. M. G.J. M. G. Le ClézioAhtisaari, MarttiMartti AhtisaariKrugman, PaulPaul Krugman
2009Kao, Charles K.Charles K. Kao;
Boyle, Willard S.Willard S. Boyle;
Smith, George E.George E. Smith
Ramakrishnan, VenkatramanVenkatraman Ramakrishnan;
Steitz, Thomas A.Thomas A. Steitz;
Yonath, AdaAda Yonath
Blackburn, ElizabethElizabeth Blackburn;
Greider, Carol W.Carol W. Greider;
Szostak, Jack W.Jack W. Szostak
Müller, HertaHerta MüllerObama, BarackBarack ObamaOstrom, ElinorElinor Ostrom;
Williamson, Oliver E.Oliver E. Williamson
2010Geim, AndreAndre Geim;
Novoselov, KonstantinKonstantin Novoselov
Heck, Richard F.Richard F. Heck;
Negishi, Ei-ichiEi-ichi Negishi;
Suzuki, AkiraAkira Suzuki
Edwards, Robert G.Robert G. EdwardsVargas Llosa, MarioMario Vargas LlosaXiaobo, LiuLiu Xiaobo[F]Diamond, Peter A.Peter A. Diamond;
Mortensen, Dale T.Dale T. Mortensen;
Pissarides, Christopher A.Christopher A. Pissarides
2011Perlmutter, SaulSaul Perlmutter;
Riess, Adam G.Adam G. Riess;
Schmidt, BrianBrian Schmidt
Shechtman, DanDan ShechtmanBeutler, BruceBruce Beutler;
Hoffmann, Jules A.Jules A. Hoffmann;
Steinman, Ralph M.Ralph M. Steinman
Tranströmer, TomasTomas TranströmerSirleaf, Ellen JohnsonEllen Johnson Sirleaf;
Gbowee, LeymahLeymah Gbowee;
Karman, TawakelTawakel Karman
Sargent, Thomas J.Thomas J. Sargent;
Sims, Christopher A.Christopher A. Sims
2012Haroche, SergeSerge Haroche;
J. Wineland, DavidDavid J. Wineland
Kobilka, Brian K.Brian K. Kobilka;
Lefkowitz, Robert J.Robert J. Lefkowitz
Gurdon, John B.John B. Gurdon;
Yamanaka, Shinya Shinya Yamanaka
Yan, MoMo YanUnion, EuropeanEuropean UnionRoth, Alvin E.Alvin E. Roth;
Shapley, Lloyd S.Lloyd S. Shapley
2013Englert, FrançoisFrançois Englert;
Higgs, Peter W.Peter W. Higgs
Karplus, MartinMartin Karplus;
Levitt, MichaelMichael Levitt;
Warshel, AriehArieh Warshel
Rothman, James E.James E. Rothman;
Schekman, Randy W.Randy W. Schekman;
Südhof, Thomas C.Thomas C. Südhof
Munro, AliceAlice Munrofor the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, OrganisationOrganisation for the Prohibition of Chemical WeaponsFama, Eugene F.Eugene F. Fama;
Hansen, Lars PeterLars Peter Hansen;
Shiller, Robert J.Robert J. Shiller
2014Akasaki, IsamuIsamu Akasaki;
Amano, HiroshiHiroshi Amano;
Nakamura, ShujiShuji Nakamura
Betzig, EricEric Betzig;
Hell, StefanStefan Hell;
Moerner, WilliamWilliam Moerner
O'Keefe, JohnJohn O'Keefe;
Moser, May-BrittMay-Britt Moser;
Moser, EdvardEdvard Moser
Modiano, PatrickPatrick ModianoSatyarthi, KailashKailash Satyarthi;
Yousafzai, MalalaMalala Yousafzai
Tirole, JeanJean Tirole
2015Kajita, TakaakiTakaaki Kajita;
McDonald, Arthur B.Arthur B. McDonald
Lindahl, TomasTomas Lindahl;
Modrich, Paul L.Paul L. Modrich;
Sancar, AzizAziz Sancar
Campbell, William C.William C. Campbell;
Ōmura, SatoshiSatoshi Ōmura;
Youyou, TuTu Youyou
Alexievich, SvetlanaSvetlana AlexievichNational Dialogue Quartet, TunisianTunisian National Dialogue QuartetDeaton, AngusAngus Deaton
2016[10]J. Thouless, DavidDavid J. Thouless;
Haldane, DuncanDuncan Haldane;
Kosterlitz, John M.John M. Kosterlitz
Sauvage, Jean-PierreJean-Pierre Sauvage;
Stoddart, FraserFraser Stoddart;
Feringa, BenBen Feringa
Ohsumi, YoshinoriYoshinori OhsumiDylan, BobBob DylanSantos, Juan ManuelJuan Manuel SantosHart, OliverOliver Hart;
Holmström, Bengt R.Bengt R. Holmström
YearPhysicsChemistryPhysiology
or Medicine
LiteraturePeaceEconomics

Notes

  • A In 1938 and 1939, the government of Germany did not allow three German Nobel nominees to accept their Nobel Prizes. The three were Richard Kuhn, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1938; Adolf Butenandt, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1939; and Gerhard Domagk, Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine in 1939. They were later awarded the Nobel Prize diploma and medal, but not the money.[8]
  • B In 1948, the Nobel Prize in Peace was not awarded. The Nobel Foundation's website suggests that it would have been awarded to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, however, due to his assassination earlier that year, it was left unassigned in his honor.[11]
  • C In 1958, Russian-born Boris Pasternak, under pressure from the government of the Soviet Union, was forced to decline the Nobel Prize in Literature.[8]
  • D In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre refused to accept the Nobel Prize in Literature, as he had consistently refused all official honors in the past.[8]
  • E In 1973, Lê Ðức Thọ declined the Nobel Peace Prize. His reason was that he felt he did not deserve it because although he helped negotiate the Paris Peace Accords (a cease-fire in the Vietnam War), there had been no actual peace agreement.[7][8]
  • F In 2010, Liu Xiaobo was unable to receive the Nobel Peace Prize as he was sentenced to 11 years of imprisonment by the Chinese authorities.[12]

See also

References

General
Specific
  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  2. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize Amounts". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  6. ^ "List of All Nobel Laureates 1942". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  7. ^ a b Lundestad, Geir (2001-03-15). "The Nobel Peace Prize 1901-2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Nobel Prize Facts". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2015-10-11. 
  9. ^ "Women Nobel Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  10. ^ "2016 Nobel Prizes - Prize Announcement Dates". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2016. 
  11. ^ Tønnesson, Øyvind (December 1, 1999). "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved January 3, 2010. Later, there have been speculations that the committee members could have had another deceased peace worker than Gandhi in mind when they declared that there was "no suitable living candidate", namely the Swedish UN envoy to Palestine, Count Bernadotte, who was murdered in September 1948. Today, this can be ruled out; Bernadotte had not been nominated in 1948. Thus it seems reasonable to assume that Gandhi would have been invited to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize had he been alive one more year. 
  12. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2010 - Presentation Speech". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 

External links

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