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List of indigenous peoples


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_indigenous_peoples
Updated: 2016-10-22T02:32Z
Main article: Indigenous peoples

This is a partial list of the world's indigenous / aboriginal / native people. Indigenous peoples are any ethnic group of peoples who are considered to fall under one of the internationally recognized definitions of Indigenous peoples, such as United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank, i.e. "those ethnic groups that were indigenous to a territory prior to being incorporated into a national state, and who are politically and culturally separate from the majority ethnic identity of the state that they are a part of".[1]

Note that this is a listing of peoples, groups and communities. Many of the names are externally imposed, and are not those the people identify within their cultures. As John Trudell observed, "They change our name and treat us the same." Basic to the unethical treatment of indigenous peoples is an insistence that the original inhabitants of the land are not permitted to name themselves. Many tribal groups have reasserted their traditional self-identifying names in recent times,[2] in a process of geographical renaming where "The place-name changes herald a new era, in which Aboriginal people have increasing control over the right to name and govern their homelands."[3]

In this list, native ethnonyms (autonyms or endonyms) are given in round brackets. In some cases the endonym is the name by which the ethnic group/people is called by other peoples. However, in most cases, exonyms predominate.

This list is grouped by region, and sub-region. Note that a particular group may warrant listing under more than one region, either because the group is distributed in more than one region (example: Inuit in North America and eastern Russia), or there may be some overlap of the regions themselves (that is, the boundaries of each region are not always clear and some locations may commonly be associated with more than one region).

Definition

Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing on those territories, or parts of them. They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system.[4]

This historical continuity may consist of the continuation, for an extended period reaching into the present of one or more of the following factors:

  • Occupation of ancestral lands, or at least of part of them
  • Common ancestry with the original occupants of these lands
  • Culture in general, or in specific manifestations (such as religion, living under a tribal system, membership of an indigenous community, dress, means of livelihood, lifestyle, etc.)
  • Language (whether used as the only language, as mother-tongue, as the habitual means of communication at home or in the family, or as the main, preferred, habitual, general or normal language)
  • Residence in certain parts of the country, or in certain regions of the world
  • Other relevant factors.
  • On an individual basis, an indigenous person is one who belongs to these indigenous populations through self-identification as indigenous (group consciousness) and is recognized and accepted by these populations as one of its members (acceptance by the group). This preserves for these communities the sovereign right and power to decide who belongs to them, without external interference.[5]

Africa

North Africa

Shilha Berbers in Morocco
A Nubian woman circa 1900

North Africa generally includes African countries with borders on the Mediterranean and northern Red Sea and Atlantic Ocean, bounded largely by the Sahara Desert to the south. Generally includes lands and countries north of the Sahara Desert. Due to ethnic, cultural and climatic characteristics, among others, it is a different region of the African continent, having close ties to Southwest Asia (Middle East).

Central Africa

Baka pygmy dancers in the East Province of Cameroon.
Batwa Pygmy with traditional bow and arrow

East Africa

Hadza people, who are indigenous to East Africa

West Africa

Southern Africa

San people, who are indigenous to Southern Africa.

Asia

Central Asia

East Asia

Miao (Hmong) girls in China
Bunun dancer

North Asia

Representation of a Chukchi family by Louis Choris (1816)
Buryat shaman of Olkhon, Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia.
Nenets child

South Asia

An old Munda man, Dinajpur
Kodava men in traditional attire, India
An Adivasi woman from the Kutia Kondh tribal group in Odisha, India
A tribal woman of Assam
Veddha chief Uruwarige Wannila Aththo, leader of the indigenous people Sri Lanka

Southeast Asia

A Wa woman carrying her child
Akha girl in Laos
Yi/Nuosu women
A Murut man (a member of one of the Dayak ethnicities) in Monsopiad Cultural Village, Kg. Kuai Kandazon, Penampang, Sabah, Borneo Island
Ati woman, the Philippines, 2007[6] The Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.[7]

Mainland Southeast Asia

Maritime Southeast Asia

Southwest Asia

Marsh Arabs/Ma'dan poling a mashoof
Baloch of Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

Caucasus

Traditional Adyghe clothing.

Europe

Basques in a festival.
Faroese folk dancers, some in national costumes.
Galician bagpipers in New York.
Kashubian regional dress.
Gagauz old and young people.
Mordvin women of Penza Oblast dressed in traditional costumes.

Oceania

Oceania includes most islands of the Pacific Ocean, New Guinea and the continent of Australia.

List of peoples by geographical and ethnolinguistic grouping:

Australia

Aboriginal farmers in Victoria, Australia, 1858

Australia includes the continental landmass, and associated islands.

Melanesia

Fijians.

Melanesia generally includes New Guinea and other (far-)western Pacific islands from the Arafura Sea out to Fiji. The region is mostly inhabited by the Melanesian peoples.

Micronesia

Micronesia generally includes the various small island chains of the western and central Pacific. The region is mostly inhabited by the Micronesian peoples.

Polynesia

Samoan family

Polynesia includes New Zealand and the islands of the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The region is mostly inhabited by the Polynesian peoples.

Polynesian outliers

The Americas

The Americas is the supercontinent comprising North and South America, and associated islands.

List of peoples by geographical and ethnolinguistic grouping:

North America

North America includes all of the continent and islands east of the Bering Strait and north of the Isthmus of Panama; it includes Greenland, Canada, United States, Mexico, Central American and Caribbean countries. However a distinction can be made between a broader North America and a narrower Northern America and Middle America due to ethnic and cultural characteristics.


Arctic

Two Inuit women in traditional amauti (packing parkas)

Subarctic

Pacific Northwest Coast

Northwest Plateau

Great Plains

Main article: Plains Indians

Eastern Woodlands

California

Great Basin

Southwest

Main article: Southwest peoples

Mesoamerica

Tzeltal dancers waiting to perform, San Cristobal.
Mam people.
Mayan family from Yucatán
Amuzgos in traditional dress.
Mazatec girls performing a dance in Huautla de Jimenez.
Huichol woman and child.

North American Circum-Caribbean

A Kuna woman in traditional dress.

Caribbean

Portrait of the Kali'na exhibited at the Jardin d'Acclimatation in Paris in 1892

The Caribbean, or West Indies, generally includes the island chains of the Caribbean.

South America

Emberá women
Bororo-Boe man from Mato Grosso at Brazil's Indigenous Games, 2007
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Peru

South America generally includes all of the continent and islands south of the Isthmus of Panama.


South American Circum-Caribbean

Guianas

Amazon

Eastern Highlands

Gran Chaco

Andes

Southern Cone

Circumpolar

Circumpolar peoples is an umbrella term for the various indigenous peoples of the Arctic. List of peoples by ethnolinguistic grouping:

See also

See also

See all pages that start with indigenous people or indigenous

Notes

  1. ^ Sanders, Douglas (1999). "Indigenous peoples: Issues of definition". International Journal of Cultural Property. 8 (1): 4–13. doi:10.1017/S0940739199770591. 
  2. ^ Ritzer, G., and Ryan, M.J., eds., The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology, Wiley, 2011, p.313
  3. ^ Alia, V., Names and Nunavut: Culture and Identity in Arctic Canada, Berghahn Books, 2008, p.143
  4. ^ Jose R. Martinez Cobo
  5. ^ Definition of indigenous peoples
  6. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Philippines: Overview, 2007", UNHCR | Refworld.
  7. ^ Hanihara, T (1992). "Negritos, Australian Aborigines, and the proto-sundadont dental pattern: The basic populations in East Asia". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 88 (2): 183–96. PMID 1605316. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330880206. 
  8. ^ Sawahla & Dloomy (2007, pp. 425–433)
  9. ^ Unrepresented Nations and People Organization | UNPO, Assyrians the Indigenous People of Iraq [1]
  10. ^ Tubb, 1998. pg-13-14.
  11. ^ Mark Smith in "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" states "Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period (c. 1200 – 1000 BC). The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture... In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period." (pp. 6–7). Smith, Mark (2002) "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's)
  12. ^ Rendsberg, Gary (2008). "Israel without the Bible". In Frederick E. Greenspahn. The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. NYU Press, pp. 3–5
  13. ^ Josephus. War of the Jews 9:2.
  14. ^ http://www.khazaria.com/genetics/abstracts.html
  15. ^ The UN Refugee Agency | UNHCR, World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples [2]
  16. ^ Department of Evolutionary Biology at University of Tartu Estonian Biocentre | Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation, Molecular Anthropology Group [3]
  17. ^ [4]
  18. ^ Rouse (1992)

References

Kipuri, Naomi (2007), "Kenya", in Sille Stidsen (compilation and ed.), The Indigenous World 2007 (PDF online edition), International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs yearbooks (ISSN 1024-0217), Marianne Wiben Jensen (Horn of Africa and East Africa regional ed.), Copenhagen: IWGIA, distributed by Transaction Publishers, pp. 468–476, ISBN 978-87-91563-23-2, OCLC 30981676 
Minority Rights Group International (1997), World Directory of Minorities, London, UK: Minority Rights Group International, ISBN 978-1-873194-36-2 
Rouse, Irving (1992), The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the People who greeted Columbus, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-05181-6, OCLC 24469325 
Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). Canaanites. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3108-X. 
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