Close menu

North American Soccer League (1968–84)

Updated: 2017-09-06T21:53Z

North American Soccer League
FoundedDecember 7, 1967[1]
FoldedMarch 28, 1985
CountryUnited States
Other club(s) fromCanada
Number of teams24
Level on pyramid1
Promotion toNone
Relegation toNone
Last championsChicago Sting
Most championshipsNew York Cosmos (5 titles)
Original logo of the NASL (1968–1974)

The North American Soccer League (NASL) was the top-level major professional soccer league in the United States and Canada that operated from 1968 to 1984. It was the first soccer league to be successful on a national scale in the United States. The league final was called the Soccer Bowl from 1975 to 1983 and the Soccer Bowl Series in its final year, 1984. The league was headed by Commissioner Phil Woosnam from 1969 to 1983.

The league's popularity peaked in the late 1970s. The league averaged over 13,000 fans per game in each season from 1977 to 1983, and the league's matches were broadcast on network television from 1975 to 1980.[2] The league's most prominent team was the New York Cosmos. During the mid-to-late 1970s, the Cosmos signed a number of the world's best players —Pelé, Franz Beckenbauer, Carlos Alberto— and the Cosmos averaged over 28,000 fans for each season from 1977 to 1982 while having three seasons of the average attendance topping 40,000 spectators per game. Other internationally well-known players in the league included Giorgio Chinaglia, Johan Cruyff, Johan Neeskens, Gerd Müller, George Best, and Rodney Marsh.

The league additionally sanctioned indoor soccer in various tournament forms in 1971, 1975, 1976, 1979 and 1983, and in a season format in 1979–80, 1980–81, 1981–82 and 1983–84.



The surprisingly large North American TV audience of over 1 million for the 1966 FIFA World Cup and the resulting documentary film, Goal!, led American sports investors to believe there was an untapped market for the sport in the U.S. and Canada. In 1967, two professional soccer leagues started in the United States: the FIFA-sanctioned United Soccer Association, which consisted of entire European and South American teams brought to the U.S. and given local names, and the unsanctioned National Professional Soccer League. While the USA had FIFA sanction, the foreign teams which were rebranded as American for the summer 1967 season viewed the league as little more than a training exercise for their off-season, and most did not field their best players. The NPSL had a two-year national television contract in the U.S. with the CBS television network...referees were instructed to whistle fouls and delay play to allow CBS to insert commercials.[3] The ratings for matches were unacceptable even by weekend daytime standards and the arrangement with CBS was soon terminated. Bill MacPhail, head of CBS Sports, attributed NPSL's lack of TV appeal to empty stadiums with few fans, and to undistinguished foreign players who were unfamiliar to American soccer fans.[4]

The two leagues merged on December 7, 1967 to form the North American Soccer League (NASL). NASL began the 1968 season with 17 of the 22 teams that had participated during the 1967 season, folding five redundant teams in cities where both USA and NPSL had operated. The teams relied mostly on foreign talent, including the Brazilian Vavá, one of the leading scorers of the 1958 and 1962 World Cups. International friendlies included victories against Pelé's Santos and against English champions Manchester City.[5]

Though the league had a few successes, the league had significant problems gaining acceptance in the American sports community. The 17 teams included only 30 North American players.[5] The expenses of high salaries for foreign players and renting of large stadiums, coupled with low attendances, resulted in every team losing money in 1968, and investors quickly pulled the plug after their year's commitment ended.[5] At the end of the year, CBS pulled its TV contract, and all but five of the teams folded.The league moved its offices to a basement in Atlanta's stadium, and at the end of the eight game 1969 season, the league declared Kansas City the league champions without a playoff, and the Baltimore Bays announced they would fold. It appeared top-tier professional soccer would not survive in North America.

Desperate to keep the league afloat, the league approached two American Soccer League teams, the Rochester Lancers and the Washington Darts about transferring to the NASL. Despite coming from the ASL (which had a nearly 40-year history as a semi-pro league), the two teams were immediately the most successful, and won their respective divisions. Rochester beat Washington in a two-game final, and the league survived.

In 1971, NASL added three teams—the New York Cosmos, Montreal Olympique, and the Toronto Metros—each of which paid a $25,000 expansion fee.[6] The Dallas Tornado won the title after a number of multiple overtime playoff games, including a 173-minute marathon against Rochester.

The NASL realized it needed to sell to North Americans the sport of soccer, which was still foreign to most people. The league modified the rules in an attempt to make the game more exciting, and comprehensible, to the average sports fan. These changes included a clock that counted time down to zero as was typical of other timed American sports, rather than upwards to 90 minutes as was traditional. NASL implemented in 1972 a 35 yd (32 m) line for offside[7] (a rule change designed to reduce prevalent offside traps) rather than the usual half-way line, a rule change which FIFA tolerated until 1982.[8][9] NASL introduced a penalty shootout in 1974 to decide matches that ended in a draw. The league also carried over the points system used by the NPSL in the previous year in which teams were awarded 6 points for win and 3 for a draw, plus up to 3 bonus points for each goal scored. On five occasions this nontraditional system gave the regular season title to a team other than the one with the best record (most notably in 1980 when the Seattle Sounders set the league record of 25 games, yet the Cosmos were awarded the title with one fewer win).

Interest begins to grow

The NASL of the early 1970s was, to a large extent, a semi-pro league, with many of the players holding other jobs.

On September 3, 1973, Sports Illustrated featured a soccer player on its cover for the first time — Philadelphia Atoms goalkeeper Bob Rigby.[10] SI profiled the Philadelphia Atoms victory in the NASL championship, the first time an American expansion sports team won a title in its first season.[10] Philadelphia averaged 11,500 fans in 1973, the first time since 1967 that any North American professional soccer team had averaged over 10,000 fans.[11] The cover title declared "Soccer Goes American", as Philadelphia had started six Americans in the championship match. Despite the "Soccer Goes American" title, however, in no season after 1974 did any American player win the MVP award or finish as league top scorer, as the mid-1970s saw an influx of foreign talent.SI predicted continued success for the Philadelphia Atoms, but the Atoms dissolved in 1976.[10]

NASL's average attendance had grown steadily from a low of 2,930 in 1969 to 7,770 in 1974, and by 1974 four teams were averaging over 10,000 attendance.[11] The 1974 NASL Championship game between the Los Angeles Aztecs and the Miami Toros was televised live on CBS, the first national broadcast of a pro soccer match in the United States since 1968.[12]

The 1974 and 1975 seasons saw rapid expansion for NASL. In 1974, eight new teams paid the $75,000 franchise fee and joined the league, although two existing teams folded.[13] The 1974 expansion saw teams on the west coast, giving NASL a national presence for the first time. The west coast expansion was a success, with three of the teams — San Jose, Seattle and Vancouver — averaging over 10,000 fans in 1974.[13] In 1975, five more franchises were added. Two of these five additions — Chicago and Hartford — were in cities that had successful franchises in the Division II American Soccer League, which at the time saw itself as a potential challenger to NASL as the U.S.'s top professional soccer league.[14] The expansions of 1974 and 1975 meant that NASL had grown from 9 teams in 1973 to 20 teams by 1975.

The 1975 season saw the signing of internationally known players, including Portuguese star Eusébio (who Rhode Island of the Division II ASL had tried to sign),[14] and former England goalkeeper Peter Bonetti.

Pelé and the New York Cosmos

Pelé's arrival created a media sensation and overnight transformed the fortunes of soccer in the United States. From the moment he signed his contract at the 21 Club on June 10, 1975 in front of a crush of ecstatic worldwide media, Pelé's every move was followed, bringing attention and credibility to soccer in America. The New York Cosmos' home attendance tripled in just half the season Pelé was there, and on the road the Cosmos also played in front of huge crowds that came to watch Pelé play.

Pelé's arrival resulted in greater TV exposure for the Cosmos and for the league overall. Ten million people tuned in to watch CBS' live broadcast of Pelé's debut match—a record American TV audience for soccer—with the Cosmos on June 15, 1975 against the Dallas Tornado at Downing Stadium in New York.[3][4] CBS also televised another Cosmos match plus the 1975 Soccer Bowl championship match, and in 1976 ABC signed a contract to broadcast matches during the 1976 season.[3][4] By 1976, NASL was being picked up by the mainstream media, with the sports pages of newspapers covering NASL.[4]The NASL was shown on the TVS network during 1977 and 1978, although some games were tape delayed or not carried in certain markets.[3]

The biggest club in the league and the organization's bellwether was the Cosmos, who drew upwards of 40,000 fans per game at their height while, along with Pelé (Brazil), another aging superstar Franz Beckenbauer (Germany) played for them. Although both well past their prime by the time they joined the NASL, the two were considered to have previously been the best attacking (offensive) (Pelé) and defensive (Beckenbauer) players in the world.

Giants Stadium sold out (73,000+) their 1978 championship win. However, the overall average attendance of the entire league never reached 15,000, with some clubs averaging less than 5,000.[citation needed]

North American Soccer League Progression
Season Teams Games Attendance Network TV
19681732 4,699 CBS
1969516 2,930 None
1970624 3,163
19718 4,154
197214 4,780
1973919 5,954
197415207,770 CBS (1)
197520227,642 CBS (2)
1976 10,295 CBS (2)
1977182613,558 TVS (7)
19782430 13,084 TVS (6)
1979 14,201 ABC (9)
198032 14,440 ABC (8)
198121 14,084 ABC (1)
198214 13,155 None
19831230 13,258
1984924 10,759
TV column includes only network TV.
It does not include cable (ESPN, USA)
or pay-per-view (SportsVision).

Expansion and star players

The Los Angeles Aztecs signed Manchester United star George Best in 1976. NASL had been trying to persuade Best to come to America and place him in a major media market, but once the New York Cosmos had signed Pelé, Los Angeles was the logical placement for Best.[15] Best was traded to Fort Lauderdale in 1978, and in 1979 Los Angeles signed its next big star, Johan Cruyff.[15] Cruyff was an instant success, doubling the team's attendance, and winning the league's MVP award.[16]LA also brought in a new head coach from 1979–1980, Rinus Michels, who had coached Ajax Amsterdam, Barcelona, and the Dutch national team, the man credited with the invention of the Dutch playing style of "Total Football" in the 1970s.[17]

The Minnesota Kicks were established in 1976 and quickly became one of the league's more popular teams, drawing an average attendance of 23,120 fans per game in 1976 to the Metropolitan Stadium in the suburbs of Minneapolis.[18] The Kicks won their division four years in a row from 1976–79, drawing over 23,000 fans in each of those four seasons (peaking at 32,775 in 1977).

After LA, Cruyff then moved on to the Washington Diplomats.[19] The Washington Diplomats had been purchased by Madison Square Garden Corp. and its Chairman Sonny Werblin in October 1978. Cruyff's presence was a huge boost, as was Wim Jansen, a midfielder who had played for the Netherlands at the 1974 and 1978 World Cups. For the 1980 season, the Diplomats attendance was 19,205 spectators per match.[20]

Despite NASL's apparent success, of NASL's 18 teams in 1977, six were considered franchises that needed to be relocated, bought out, or folded.[21] A planning committee of owners issued a report recommending that NASL strengthen its existing teams, and limit expansion to two franchises for 1978, with one additional franchise per year for the following years.[22] Despite this recommendation, NASL brought in six new teams at $3 million per team, raising the league's teams from 18 to 24 for the 1978 season.

San Diego Sockers President Jack Daley later described NASL's boom years of the late 1970s: "It became fashionable to chase the Cosmos. Everyone had to have a Pelé. Coaches went around the world on talent searches, forcing the prices up."[23]The Portland Timbers tripled their team payroll from 1979 to 1980 in an effort to keep up with the league average.[24]

The league began a college draft in 1972 in an attempt to increase the number of U.S.- and Canadian-born players in the league. The foreign image of soccer was not helped, however, by a league that brought in many older, high-profile foreign players, and frequently left Americans on the bench. This effort was often doubly futile, as while many of the foreign players were perhaps "big names" in their home countries, almost none of them qualified as such in North America, and they quickly absorbed most of the available payroll, such as it was, which could have otherwise been used to pay North American players better. As of 1979, NASL rules required that each squad start two U.S. or Canadian players—often a goalkeeper and an outside defender[24]—and that each 17-man roster carry six native players.[25] The U.S. had lacked sufficient quality youth soccer programs in the 1950s, resulting in the dearth of U.S.-born talent in NASL in the 1970s.[25] NASL suffered a minor blow with a players strike at the start of the 1979 season, but the strike was honored by only one third of the players and lasted only five days.[26]

In 1980, the minimum number of U.S. and Canadian starters was raised to three.[25] The 1980 season was referred to as "the year of the North American player" with a renewed emphasis on "native players."[24] With the increased requirements for teams to field U.S. and Canadian players, demand for quality native players boomed, with Jim McAlister setting a transfer record for an American player at $200,000.[24]

With the end of the 1970s, NASL seemed poised for moderate success.[16] The 1979 season had seen attendance increase by 8%. ABC televised several matches during the 1979 and 1980 seasons.[27] An apparent era of stability seemed to have arrived, with the 1980 season expecting no planned expansion, relocations or failed teams among its 24 franchises, and with most rosters remaining relatively stable.[16]

Financial problems and contraction

At the close of the 1980 season, NASL's woes were beginning to mount, as NASL was feeling the effects of over-expansion, the economic recession, and disputes with the players union.[28] In the early 1980s the U.S. economy went into the doldrums, with unemployment reaching 10.8% in 1982, its highest level since World War II.[29] NASL's owners, who were losing money, were not immune from the broader economy.

Perhaps most troubling of all, NASL owners were spending sums on player salaries that could not be covered by league revenue. Whereas NFL owners in 1980 were spending on average 40% of the team's budget on player salaries, NASL owners were averaging over 70% of their budget on player salaries.[28] The Cosmos in particular, owned by Warner Communications, were spending lavish sums on player salaries, and while other teams—such as Los Angeles, Jacksonville, Portland, Toronto, and Montreal—that were owned by major corporations could keep up with the Cosmos, owners without deep pockets could not keep pace with the spending levels.[28] Owners spent millions on aging stars to try to match the success of the Cosmos, and lost significant amounts of money in doing so.

Another headache for NASL was competition from the resurgent Major Indoor Soccer League.[30] The MISL began during the 1978–79 season, grew quickly, and by the early 1980s MISL was averaging over 8,000 fans per game. MISL's growth meant that throughout the early 1980s the NASL and the MISL engaged in a bidding war for U.S. based soccer players, putting further pressure on league salaries and heightening NASL's financial problems.[30] In an effort to vie for MISL's expanding audiences, the NASL operated an indoor soccer league from 1979–80 to 1981–82 and in 1983–84.

As a result, the league ran a collective deficit in 1980 of about $30 million, with each team losing money.[28] The San Diego Sockers lost $10 million from 1978 to 1983, and Tulsa lost $8 million from 1980 to 1983.[23] The Washington Diplomats folded in November 1980, after owners MSG Corp. lost a rumored $5 million on the team in 1979 and 1980.[20]

NASL had also decided to sell TV advertising locally, instead of recruiting national sponsors.[31] During the 1980 offseason, the NASL Players' Association was in dispute with the league over projected payments for the indoor season, causing the players to file a lawsuit against the league.[28]

The 1981 season was even worse for the league, with the league's 24 teams again running a collective deficit of $30 million and every team losing money.[32] Ted Turner's Atlanta Chiefs lost $7 million, the Minnesota Kicks lost $2.5 million, the Calgary Boomers lost over $2 million, and Lamar Hunt's Dallas Tornado had lost $1 million annually.[32] At the close of the 1981 season five teams folded, with another two teams—the L.A. Aztecs and Minnesota Kicks—later folding during the 1981-82 offseason after failing to find buyers.[32] NASL shrank from 21 teams to 14.

Many of these new owners were not soccer savvy, and once the perceived popularity started to decline, they got out as quickly as they got in. Over-expansion without sufficient vetting of ownership groups was a huge factor in the death of the league.[31] Once the league started growing, new franchises were awarded quickly, and it doubled in size in a few years, peaking at 24 teams. Many have suggested that cash-starved existing owners longed for their share of the expansion fee charged of new owners, even though Forbes Magazine reported this amount as being only $100,000.

Decline and demise

With the NASL declining rapidly in the early 1980s and losing many franchises, NASL made several changes in an attempt to keep the league going. Phil Woosnam, who had served as NASL Commissioner since 1969 and had been a strong proponent of expansion during the 1970s, was removed by the league's 14 owners in April 1982 by a reported 11-3 vote.[22] NASL tried to help bring the 1986 World Cup to the United States after Colombia withdrew from its commitment to host, but FIFA decided in 1983 to award the hosting of the 1986 FIFA World Cup to Mexico, rather than the U.S. In early 1984, NASL reached a collective bargaining agreement with the NASL Players Association that included a $825,000 salary cap to be achieved by annual 10% reductions, and a reduction in roster sizes from 28 to 19.[23]

The league lasted until the 1984 NASL season. On March 28, 1985, the NASL suspended operations for the 1985 season, when only the Minnesota Strikers and Toronto Blizzard were interested in playing. At the time, the league planned to relaunch in 1986.[33]

However, four NASL teams (Chicago Sting, Minnesota Strikers, New York Cosmos, and San Diego Sockers) joined the Major Indoor Soccer League for its 1984–85 season. The Golden Bay Earthquakes and Tampa Bay Rowdies managed to survive as independent franchises until they joined the WSA and AISL respectively. The Rowdies were the last surviving NASL franchise to play outdoor soccer, lasting until February 1994.[34] The Sockers' were the final league franchise to dissolve. They survived playing exclusively indoor soccer until 1996.


After the United States' early elimination in 1982 World Cup qualifying, American manager Walt Chyzowych stated the NASL had failed to offer much of a foundation for his team, since the league had largely failed to develop American players.[35] On the other hand, Canada nearly qualified for the 1982 World Cup with a squad exclusively made up of NASL players.[36] Although the NASL ultimately failed, it did introduce soccer to the North American sports scene on a large scale for the first time, and was a major contributing factor in soccer becoming one of the most popular sports among American youth. On July 4, 1988, FIFA awarded the hosting of the 1994 World Cup to the United States. NASL has also provided lessons for its successor Major League Soccer, which has taken precautions against such problems, particularly a philosophy of financial restraint (mainstream American sports, by the time of MLS' startup in 1996, had adopted financial restraint rules, which MLS adopted). American college and high school soccer still use some NASL-style rules (with shortened halves, although the time does stop for certain reasons).

18 of the 22 players on the Canadian squad at the 1986 World Cup were former NASL players. The United States did not have any former NASL players on their squad at the 1990 World Cup but had three on the 1994 team (Fernando Clavijo, Hugo Pérez and Roy Wegerle) and one on the 1998 team (Wegerle).

Several NASL team names have been reused by teams in later soccer leagues. Currently the Portland Timbers, San Jose Earthquakes, Seattle Sounders, and Vancouver Whitecaps are all successor teams in Major League Soccer. Four other well known names (New York Cosmos, Tampa Bay Rowdies, Fort Lauderdale Strikers, and Tulsa Roughnecks FC) have resurfaced in the new NASL and the USL, which are both Division II leagues. Two of the oldest derbies in North American professional soccer (Portland–Seattle and Fort Lauderdale–Tampa Bay) began in the NASL of the 1970s, and continue today via successor clubs.

NASL Indoor Progression
Year Participation Games Played
19714 of 8 teams 4 games
197516 of 20 teams2-4 games
197612 of 20 teams
19794 of 24 teams4 games
1979–8010 of 24 teams12 games
1980–8119 of 21 teams18 games
1981–8213 of 14 teams
19834 of 12 teams8 games
1983–847 of 9 teams32 games

NASL indoor

The NASL first staged an indoor tournament in 1971 at the St. Louis Arena with a $2,800 purse.[37] After a couple of years of experimenting, including a three-city tour by the Red Army team from Moscow in 1974, the league again staged tournaments in 1975 and 1976. For many years Tampa Bay owner George W. Strawbridge, Jr. continually lobbied his fellow owners to start up a winter indoor season, but was always stone-walled.[38][39] For several years, his Rowdies and several other teams used winter indoor "friendlies" as part of their training and build-up to the outdoor season. In the meantime, pressed by the rival Major Indoor Soccer League (MISL), which inaugurated play in 1978, the four-team NASL Budweiser Invitational was played over two days in January 1979 before a full arena.[40] The NASL finally started a full indoor league schedule, a 12-game season with 10 teams, in 1979–80. For the 1980–81 season, the number of teams playing indoor soccer increased to 19 and the schedule went to 18 games. The schedule remained at 18 games, but the teams participating decreased to 13 for the 1981–82 season. The league canceled the 1982–83 indoor season and three teams (Chicago, Golden Bay, and San Diego) played in the MISL for that season. Four other teams (Fort Lauderdale, Montreal, Tampa Bay and Tulsa) competed in a short NASL Grand Prix of Indoor Soccer Tournament in early 1983.[41] The NASL indoor season returned for 1983–84 with only seven teams but a 32-game schedule.

NASL champions

By year

YearWinner (number of titles)Runners-upTop Team in Regular Season (points)Top scorer (points)Winning Coach
1968Atlanta Chiefs (1)San Diego TorosSan Diego Toros (186 points)Poland Janusz Kowalik23x15px Phil Woosnam
1969Kansas City Spurs (1)Atlanta ChiefsKansas City Spurs (110 points)23x15px Kaizer Motaung23x15px János Bédl
1970Rochester Lancers (1)Washington DartsWashington Darts (137 points)23x15px Kirk ApostolidisItaly Sal DeRosa[42]
1971Dallas Tornado (1)Atlanta ChiefsRochester Lancers (141 points)United States Carlos MetidieriEngland Ron Newman
1972New York Cosmos (1)St. Louis StarsNew York Cosmos (77 points)23x15px Randy HortonUnited States Gordon Bradley
1973Philadelphia Atoms (1)Dallas TornadoDallas Tornado (111 points)United States Kyle Rote, Jr.United States Al Miller
1974Los Angeles Aztecs (1)Miami TorosLos Angeles Aztecs (110 points)United States Paul Child23x15px Alex Perolli[43]
1975Tampa Bay Rowdies (1)Portland TimbersPortland Timbers (138 points)23x15px Steve DavidItaly Eddie Firmani
1976Toronto Metros-Croatia (1)Minnesota KicksTampa Bay Rowdies (154 points)Italy Giorgio Chinaglia23x15px Domagoj Kapetanović
1977Cosmos (2)Seattle SoundersFort Lauderdale Strikers (161 points)23x15px Steve DavidItaly Eddie Firmani
1978Cosmos (3)Tampa Bay RowdiesCosmos (212 points)Italy Giorgio ChinagliaItaly Eddie Firmani
1979Vancouver Whitecaps (1)Tampa Bay RowdiesNew York Cosmos (216 points)23x15px Oscar FabbianiEngland Tony Waiters[44]
1980New York Cosmos (4)Fort Lauderdale StrikersNew York Cosmos (213 points)Italy Giorgio ChinagliaGermany Hennes Weisweiler
& 23x15px Yasin Özdenak
1981Chicago Sting (1)New York CosmosNew York Cosmos (200 points)Italy Giorgio ChinagliaUnited States Willy Roy
1982New York Cosmos (5)Seattle SoundersNew York Cosmos (203 points)Italy Giorgio Chinaglia[45]23x15px Julio Mazzei
1983Tulsa Roughnecks (1)Toronto BlizzardNew York Cosmos (194 points)23x15px Roberto Cabañas23x15px Terry Hennessey
1984Chicago Sting (2)Toronto BlizzardChicago Sting (120 points)23x15px Steve ZungulUnited States Willy Roy

* Due to the NASL's nontraditional points system, in 1968, 1969, 1980, 1983 & 1984 the team with the best win-loss record did not win the regular season.[46]
# The New York Cosmos dropped "New York" from its name for the 1977 and 1978 seasons, then returned to the full name.

By club

ClubWinnerRunner-UpSeasons WonSeasons Runner-Up
New York Cosmos511972, 1977, 1978, 1980, 19821981
Chicago Sting201981, 1984
Atlanta Chiefs1219681969, 1971
Tampa Bay Rowdies1219751978, 1979
Toronto Metros/Blizzard1219761983, 1984
Dallas Tornado1119711973
Kansas City Spurs101969
Rochester Lancers101970
Philadelphia Atoms101973
Los Angeles Aztecs101974
Vancouver Whitecaps101979
Tulsa Roughnecks101983
Seattle Sounders021977, 1982
San Diego Toros011968
Washington Darts011970
St. Louis Stars011972
Miami Toros011974
Portland Timbers011975
Minnesota Kicks011976
Fort Lauderdale Strikers011980

# The New York Cosmos dropped "New York" from its name for the 1977 and 1978 seasons, then returned to the full name.

NASL indoor champions

By year

YearWinner (number of titles)Runners-upTop Team in Regular SeasonTop scorerWinning Coach
1971Dallas Tornado (1)Rochester LancersDallas Tornado 2-0 *(tournament only)United States Mike Renshaw
United States Jim Benedek
Canada Dragan Popović
England Ron Newman
1975San Jose Earthquakes (1)Tampa Bay RowdiesSan Jose Earthquakes 4-0 *(tournament only)United States Paul Child23x15px Ivan Toplak
1976Tampa Bay Rowdies (1)Rochester LancersTampa Bay Rowdies 4-0 *(tournament only)United States Juli VeeeItaly Eddie Firmani
1979Dallas Tornado (2)Tampa Bay RowdiesDallas Tornado 2-0 *(tournament only)23x15px Jim RyanUnited States Al Miller
1979–80Tampa Bay Rowdies (2)Memphis RoguesAtlanta Chiefs 10-223x15px David ByrneEngland Gordon Jago
1980–81Edmonton Drillers (1)Chicago StingChicago Sting 13-5West Germany Karl-Heinz Granitza23x15px Timo Liekoski
1981–82San Diego Sockers (1)Tampa Bay RowdiesEdmonton Drillers 13-5United States Juli VeeeEngland Ron Newman
1983Tampa Bay Rowdies (3)Montreal ManicMontreal Manic 4-2 *(double round-robin stage) England Laurie Abrahams
Canada Dale Mitchell
United States Al Miller
1983–84San Diego Sockers (2)New York CosmosSan Diego Sockers 21-1123x15px Steve ZungulEngland Ron Newman

By club

ClubWinnerRunner-UpSeasons WonSeasons Runner-Up
Tampa Bay Rowdies331976, 1979–80, 19831975, 1979, 1981–82
Dallas Tornado201971, 1979
San Diego Sockers201981–82, 1983–84
San Jose Earthquakes101975
Edmonton Drillers101980–81
Rochester Lancers021971, 1976
Memphis Rogues011979–80
Chicago Sting011980–81
Montreal Manic011983
New York Cosmos011983–84



     – existed before 1968 NASL formation.      – continued after 1984 NASL demise.      – existed before 1968 and after 1984.

TeamNASL SeasonsNASL Evolution of FranchiseOther Leagues
Atlanta Apollos1973Chiefs→Apollos
Atlanta Chiefs 1968–1972Chiefs→ApollosNPSL
Atlanta Chiefs (1979) 1979–1981Caribous→Chiefs (1979)
Baltimore Bays 1968–1969NPSL
Baltimore Comets 1974–1975Comets→JawsQuicksilversSockers
Boston Beacons 1968USA
Boston Minutemen 1974–1976
Calgary Boomers 1981Rogues→Boomers
California Surf 1978–1981Stars→Surf
Caribous of Colorado 1978Caribous→Chiefs (1979)
Chicago Mustangs 1968USA
Chicago Sting 1975–1984MISL
Cleveland Stokers 1968USA
Connecticut Bicentennials 1977Bicentennials→Connecticut→StompersDrillers
Cosmos 1977–1978New York→Cosmos→New York
Dallas Tornado 1968–1981USA
Denver Dynamos 1974–1975Dynamos→Kicks
Detroit Cougars 1968USA
Detroit Express 1978–1981Express→Diplomats (1981)
Edmonton Drillers 1979–1982BicentennialsConnecticutStompers→Drillers
Fort Lauderdale Strikers 1977–1983DartsGatosToros→Strikers→Minnesota
Golden Bay Earthquakes 1983–1984San Jose Earthquakes→Golden BayMISL, WSA
Hartford Bicentennials 1975–1976Bicentennials→ConnecticutStompersDrillers
Houston Hurricane 1978–1980
Houston Stars 1968USA
Jacksonville Tea Men 1980–1982Tea Men→JacksonvilleASL, USL
Kansas City Spurs 1968–1970NPSL
Las Vegas Quicksilvers 1977CometsJaws→Quicksilvers→Sockers
Los Angeles Aztecs 1974–1981
Los Angeles Wolves 1968USA
Memphis Rogues 1978–1980Rogues→Boomers
Miami Gatos 1972Darts→Gatos→TorosStrikersMinnesota
Miami Toros 1973–1976DartsGatos→Toros→StrikersMinnesota
Minnesota Kicks 1976–1981Dynamos→Kicks
Minnesota Strikers 1984DartsGatosTorosStrikers→MinnesotaMISL
Montreal Olympique 1971–1973
Montreal Manic 1981–1983Fury→Manic
New England Tea Men 1978–1980Tea Men→Jacksonville
New York Cosmos 1971–76, 1979–84New York→Cosmos→New YorkMISL
New York Generals 1968NPSL
Oakland Clippers 1968NPSL
Oakland Stompers 1978BicentennialsConnecticut→Stompers→Drillers
Philadelphia Atoms 1973–1976
Philadelphia Fury 1978–1980Fury→Manic
Portland Timbers 1975–1982
Rochester Lancers 1970–1980ASL
St. Louis Stars1968–1977 Stars→SurfNPSL
San Antonio Thunder 1975–1976Thunder→Team HawaiiRoughnecks
San Diego Jaws 1976Comets→Jaws→QuicksilversSockers
San Diego Sockers 1978–1984CometsJawsQuicksilvers→SockersMISL, CISL
San Diego Toros 1968NPSL
San Jose Earthquakes 1974–1982Earthquakes→Golden Bay
Seattle Sounders 1974–1983
Tampa Bay Rowdies 1975–1984AISA, ASL, APSL
Team America 1983
Team Hawaii 1977Thunder→Team Hawaii→Roughnecks
Toronto Blizzard 1978–1984MetrosMetros-Croatia→Blizzard
Toronto Falcons1968NPSL
Toronto Metros 1971–1974Metros→Metros-CroatiaBlizzard
Toronto Metros-Croatia* 1975–1978Metros→Metros-Croatia→BlizzardNSL, CISL, CSL
Tulsa Roughnecks 1978–1984ThunderTeam Hawaii→Roughnecks
Vancouver Royals 1968USA
Vancouver Whitecaps 1974–1984
Washington Darts 1970–1971Darts→GatosTorosStrikersMinnesotaASL
Washington Diplomats 1974–1980
Washington Diplomats (1981) 1981Express→Diplomats (1981)
Washington Whips 1968USA

*Operated as Toronto Croatia from 1956 until they merged with the NASL's Toronto Metros in 1975, and then again after they sold-out of the NASL in 1979.

Of the 67 teams that played in the NASL over the course of its 17 seasons, many represent relocated franchises, and a handful represent the same franchise in the same location with changed names such as the Apollos, Cosmos and Earthquakes. The total number of unique clubs was 43.

Teams that played indoor seasons (1971, 1975–76, 1979–84)

  • Atlanta Chiefs (1979–81)
  • Baltimore Comets (1975)
  • Boston Minutemen (1975–76)
  • Calgary Boomers (1980–81)
  • California Surf (1979–81)
  • Chicago Sting (1976, 1980–82, 1983–84)
  • Dallas Tornado (1971, 1975–76, 1979, 1980–81)
  • Detroit Express (1979–81)
  • Edmonton Drillers (1980–82)
  • Fort Lauderdale Strikers (1979–81, 1983)
  • Golden Bay Earthquakes (1983–84)
  • Hartford Bicentennials (1975)
  • Jacksonville Tea Men (1980–82)
  • Los Angeles Aztecs (1975, 1979–81)
  • Memphis Rogues (1979–80)
  • Miami Toros (1975–76)
  • Minnesota Kicks (1979–81)
  • Montreal Manic (1981–82, 1983)
  • New England Tea Men (1979–80)
  • New York Cosmos (1975, 1981–82, 1983–84)
  • Philadelphia Atoms (1975)
  • Portland Timbers (1980–82)
  • Rochester Lancers (1971, 1975–76)
  • St. Louis Stars (1971, 1975–76)
  • San Diego Jaws (1976)
  • San Diego Sockers (1980–82, 1983–84)
  • San Jose Earthquakes (1975–76, 1980–82)
  • Seattle Sounders (1975, 1980–82)
  • Tampa Bay Rowdies (1975–76, 1979–84)
  • Toronto Blizzard (1980–82)
  • Toronto Metros-Croatia (1975–76)
  • Tulsa Roughnecks (1979–84)
  • Washington Darts (1971)
  • Washington Diplomats (1975–76)
  • Vancouver Whitecaps (1975–76, 1980–82, 1983–84)


  • 1967: Dick Walsh (USA) – After 18 years with the Los Angeles Dodgers, he was chosen to serve as commissioner of first the United Soccer Association (USA) in 1966, then the North American Soccer League (NASL), which resulted from the merger of the USA and the National Professional Soccer League (NPSL) prior to the 1968 season. He served the NASL through its first full season, 1968, then returned to baseball.
  • 1967: Ken Macker (NPSL)
  • 1968: Walsh and Macker co-commissioners
  • 1969–83: Phil Woosnam – He is credited as an important factor in the development of the NASL, and had been a major figure in promoting the league and had secured TV contracts from CBS and ABC.[47] He played a key role during 1970 in recruiting executives at Warner Communications to invest in an expansion team—the New York Cosmos.[48] Woosnam oversaw the westward expansion of NASL in the early 1970s, establishing teams in Los Angeles, the Bay Area, Seattle, and Vancouver. However, he also guided the league into several poor business decisions, such as over-expansion to 24 teams, that led to team owners' significant financial losses.[47] He was removed from his duties as commissioner of the NASL in 1983 following a vote of the club owners.
  • 1983–84: Howard J. Samuels – His pioneering methods in the petrochemical industry and success in the then-niche household consumer market translated into posts as Vice President of the Mobil Oil Corporation, Commissioner of the North American Soccer League, and Chairman to Elms Capital Management, Alexander Proudfoot PLC, and Communities In Schools.
  • 1984–85: Clive Toye (acting) – After the sudden death of Howard J. Samuels, Toye was appointed interim president of the NASL in December 1984.[49] The league ceased operations early the following year.

Annual honors

MVP, Rookie and Coach of the Year

Year MVP Rookie Coach
1968 Poland Janusz Kowalik 23x15px Kaizer Motaung 23x15px Phil Woosnam
1969 23x15px Pepe Fernández 23x15px Pepe Fernández 23x15px János Bédl
1970 United States Carlos Metidieri United States Jim Leeker Italy Sal DeRosa
1971 United States Carlos Metidieri 23x15px Randy Horton England Ron Newman
1972 23x15px Randy Horton United States Mike Winter Poland Kazimierz Frankiewicz
1973 23x15px Warren Archibald United States Kyle Rote, Jr. United States Al Miller
1974 England Peter Silvester United States Doug McMillan 23x15px John Young
1975 23x15px Steve David United States Chris Bahr England John Sewell
1976 23x15px Pelé United States Steve Pecher Italy Eddie Firmani
1977 West Germany Franz Beckenbauer United States Jim McAlister England Ron Newman
1978 England Mike Flanagan United States Gary Etherington England Tony Waiters
1979 23x15px Johan Cruyff United States Larry Hulcer 23x15px Timo Liekoski
1980 England Roger Davies United States Jeff Durgan England Alan Hinton
1981 Italy Giorgio Chinaglia United States Joe Morrone, Jr. United States Willy Roy
1982 England Peter Ward United States Pedro DeBrito 23x15px Johnny Giles
1983 23x15px Roberto Cabañas United States Gregg Thompson 23x15px Dragan Popović
1984 23x15px Steve Zungul 23x15px Roy Wegerle England Ron Newman

Teams named after NASL teams

The Heritage Cup in Major League Soccer was developed as a way to remember the NASL's heritage by having teams named after NASL teams to participate for a special trophy. Today, two MLS teams, San Jose and Seattle, play for this trophy, although Portland and Vancouver are both eligible for the trophy if they decide to participate in this derby. Clubs still active in some form today are listed in bold.


The NASL brought some of the world's best soccer players to the United States. The trend started early as players such as Vavá, Peter McParland, Rubén Marino Navarro, Co Prins and Juan Santisteban appeared in the league in 1968. However, after the Cosmos signed Pele in 1975, the number of famous names increased during the NASL's peak during the late 1970s and early 1980s. In fact, 20 of the 44 World Cup Best XI selections between 1966 and 1978 spent time in the NASL. At one time NASL squads fielded the captains of the past three World Cup-winning teams—Beckenbauer (1974), Alberto (1970), and Moore (1966). Of the European Footballer of the Year awards from 1965 to 1976, eight of the twelve awards—Eusébio (1965), Best (1968), Muller (1970), Cruyff (1971, '73, '74), Beckenbauer (1972, '76) —were given to players who went on to play in NASL. In addition, several players went on to greater acclaim after leaving the NASL, among them Peter Beardsley, Bruce Grobbelaar, Julio César Romero, Hugo Sánchez and Graeme Souness. Two players appeared in both the NASL and MLS, spanning a 12-year gap in North American professional soccer: Hugo Sánchez and Roy Wegerle.[50]

PlayerPositionNASL yearsNASL club(s)Accolades (Pre-NASL)
Brazil Pelé FW 1975–77 New York Cosmos Three World Cup championships with Brazil in 1958, 1962, 1970;
1973 South American Footballer of the Year
Brazil Carlos Alberto DF 1977–82 New York Cosmos;
Captained Brazil to victory at the 1970 World Cup
23x15px Elías Figueroa DF 1981 Fort Lauderdale South American Footballer of the Year in 1974, 1975, and 1976
England Alan Ball, Jr. MF 1978–80 Philadelphia;
Set up two Hurst goals at the 1966 World Cup Final;
Played at the 1970 World Cup
England Gordon Banks GK 1977–78 Fort Lauderdale GK for England during their 1966 World Cup championship run;
Six-time FIFA Goalkeeper of the Year
England Geoff Hurst FW 1976 Seattle Scored a hat trick for England at the 1966 World Cup Final;
1968 Euro All-Star Team
England Bobby Moore DF 1976; 1978 San Antonio;
Captained England to victory at the 1966 World Cup
Germany Franz Beckenbauer DF 1977–80; 1983 New York Cosmos Captained Germany to victory at the 1974 World Cup
Germany Gerd Muller FW 1979–81 Fort Lauderdale 1970 European Footballer of the Year;
Scored 10 goals at the 1970 World Cup;
1974 World Cup winner
Italy Roberto Bettega FW 1983–84 Toronto Blizzard Named to the 1978 World Cup All-Star Team;
Ranked third on Juventus' career goals scored (#2 at time of retirement)
23x15px Johan Cruyff MF 1979–81 Los Angeles Aztecs;
Washington Diplomats
Led the Netherlands to the 1974 World Cup final;
European Footballer of the Year award in 1971, 1973, and 1974
23x15px Ruud Krol DF 1980 Vancouver Whitecaps Captain of the Netherlands team that reached the 1978 World Cup Final
23x15px Johan Neeskens MF 1979–84 New York Cosmos Reached World Cup finals with the Netherlands in 1974 and 1978;
Named to the 1974 World Cup All-Star Team;
Won 3 European Cups with Ajax from 1971–1973
23x15px Rob Rensenbrink MF 1980 Portland Winner of the 1976 Onze d'Or;
Reached World Cup finals with the Netherlands in 1974 and 1978;
Second leading scorer at the 1978 World Cup
23x15px Wim Suurbier DF 1979–83 Los Angeles Aztecs;
San Jose Earthquakes
Reached World Cup finals with the Netherlands in 1974 and 1978;
Won 3 European Cups with Ajax from 1971–1973
23x15px George Best MF 1976–82 Los Angeles Aztecs;
Fort Lauderdale;
San Jose
1968 European Footballer of the Year
23x15px Julio César Romero MF 1980–83 New York Cosmos 1979 Copa América winner with Paraguay;
1985 South American Footballer of the Year
23x15px Teófilo Cubillas FW/MF 1979–83 Fort Lauderdale Named Best Young Player of 1970 World Cup;
1972 South American Footballer of the Year;
Scored 5 goals in two different World Cups (1970, 1978)
Named to 1978 World Cup All-Star Team
Poland Kazimierz Deyna MF 1981–84 San Diego Sockers Top scorer at the 1972 Olympics;
Member of Poland team that finished 3rd at the 1974 World Cup;
Won the Bronze Ball as the 3rd best player at the 1974 World Cup
23x15px Eusébio MF 1975–79 Boston Minutemen;
Toronto; Las Vegas
1965 European Footballer of the Year;
1966 World Cup Golden Boot (top scorer)
23x15px António Simões MF 1975–79 Boston; San Jose;
1962 European Cup winner with Benfica;
Member of Portugal's Magriços team that placed 3rd at 1966 World Cup
23x15px Peter Lorimer MF 1979–83 Toronto; Vancouver Scored 255 goals for Leeds United
Sweden Björn Nordqvist DF 1979–80 Minnesota Former world record holder with 115 caps;
Played at the 1970, 1974, and 1978 World Cups


Yearly average attendance

Season Lowest Low Team Average Highest High Team 2nd Highest 2nd Team
1968 2,441 Los Angeles Wolves 4,699 8,510 Kansas City Spurs 6,840 Washington Whips
1969 1,601 Baltimore Bays 2,930 4,273 Kansas City Spurs 3,371 Atlanta Chiefs
1970 2,398 Kansas City Spurs 3,163 4,506 Rochester Lancers 3,894 Washington Darts
1971 2,440 Montreal Olympique 4,154 5,993 Toronto Metros 5,871 Rochester Lancers
1972 2,112 Miami Gatos 4,780 7,773 St. Louis Stars 7,173 Toronto Metros
1973 3,317 Atlanta Apollos 5,954 11,501 Philadelphia Atoms 7,474 Dallas Tornado
1974 3,458 Toronto Metros 7,770 16,584 San Jose Earthquakes 13,454 Seattle Sounders
1975 2,641 Baltimore Comets 7,930 17,927 San Jose Earthquakes 16,826 Seattle Sounders
1976 2,571 Boston Minutemen 10,295 23,828 Seattle Sounders 23,121 Minnesota Kicks
1977 3,848 Connecticut Bicentennials 13,558 34,142 *Cosmos 32,775 Minnesota Kicks
1978 4,188 Chicago Sting 13,084 47,856 *Cosmos 30,928 Minnesota Kicks
1979 5,626 Philadelphia Fury 14,201 46,690 New York Cosmos 27,650 Tampa Bay Rowdies
1980 4,465 Philadelphia Fury 14,440 42,754 New York Cosmos 28,435 Tampa Bay Rowdies
1981 4,670 Dallas Tornado 14,084 34,835 New York Cosmos 23,704 Montreal Manic
1982 4,922 Edmonton Drillers 13,155 28,749 New York Cosmos 21,348 Montreal Manic
1983 4,212 San Diego Sockers 13,258 29,166 Vancouver Whitecaps 27,242 New York Cosmos
1984 5,702 San Diego Sockers 10,759 14,263 Minnesota Strikers 13,924 Vancouver Whitecaps

*Cosmos dropped "New York" from name for 1977 and 1978 seasons

Single-game attendance records

The New York Cosmos hold 21 of the 24 top attendance records in NASL history. Of the 107 games involving NASL clubs that have drawn 40,000+ fans, 65 were Cosmos' home matches at Giants Stadium (excludes Soccer Bowl '78). The table below ranks teams by the number of 40,000+ crowds they attracted.[51][52]

Team40,000+Highest Single AttendanceNotes
New York Cosmos 65 matches77,691 vs Ft. Lauderdale (1977)playoff game
Tampa Bay Rowdies 12 matches56,389 vs California (1980)Fourth of July fireworks display after game
Minnesota Kicks 8 matches49,572 vs San Jose (1976)playoff game
Seattle Sounders6 matches58,125 vs New York (1976)first sporting event in Kingdome
Soccer Bowl4 matches74,901[53] Cosmos vs Tampa Bay (1978)played in Giants Stadium
Montreal Manic4 matches58,542 vs Chicago (1981)playoff game
Vancouver Whitecaps3 matches60,342 vs Seattle (1983)first sporting event in BC Place
Los Angeles Aztecs2 matches48,483 vs Washington (1980)Fourth of July fireworks display after game
Washington Diplomats1 match53,351 vs New York (1980)nationally televised on ABC
Minnesota Strikers1 match52,621 vs Tampa Bay (1984)Beach Boys concert after game
Team America1 match50,108 vs Ft. Lauderdale (1983)Beach Boys concert after game

See also


Cite error: Invalid <references> tag;parameter "group" is allowed only.Use <references />, or <references group="..." />

External links

Preceded by
American Soccer League
Division 1 Soccer League in the United States
Succeeded by
Major League Soccer
  1. ^ "Another soccer war?". Steve Holroyd. Society for American Soccer History (SASH). September 4, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2016. 
  2. ^ NASL TV: A Short History,
  3. ^ a b c d NASL TV: A Short Story,
  4. ^ a b c d Sports Illustrated, Soccer Is Getting A Toehold, August 30, 1976,
  5. ^ a b c The Year in American Soccer – 1968, Steve Holroyd,
  6. ^ FLYING THE AMERICAN FLAG: THE 1971 ST LOUIS STARS, Chris Nee, April 11, 2013,
  7. ^ "The Year in American Soccer – 1972". Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  8. ^ The Question: Why is the modern offside law a stroke of genius?, The Guardian
  9. ^ Sports Illustrated, The Nasl: It's Alive But On Death Row, May 7, 1984,
  10. ^ a b c This Day In Football History, September 3, 1974 – The SI Cover Jinx Strikes Again, September 3, 2010, (There is a typo in the article – should say 1973 instead of 1974)
  11. ^ a b North American Soccer League Players, Stats, Standings,
  12. ^ Fun While It Lasted, August 25, 1974 – NASL Championship Game – Miami Toros vs. Los Angeles Aztecs,
  13. ^ a b The Year in American Soccer – 1974, Steve Holroyd,
  14. ^ a b Steve Holroyd, The Year in American Soccer – 1975,
  15. ^ a b US Soccer Players, George Best In America,
  16. ^ a b c Sports Illustrated, A Modified American Plan, March 31, 1980,
  17. ^ Scholten, Berend (March 3, 2005). "Michels – a total footballing legend". UEFA. Retrieved January 29, 2007. 
  18. ^ Sports Illustrated, Minnesota Had To Eat Croatmeal, September 6, 1976,
  19. ^ Football Republik, DEAL OF THE CENTURY – When Leicester City almost signed Johan Cruyff, June 26, 2013,
  20. ^ a b Fun While It Lasted, June 1, 1980 – Washington Diplomats vs. New York Cosmos,
  21. ^ Clive Toye, A Kick in the Grass (2006)
  22. ^ a b New York Times, N.A.S.L. IS LIKELY TO OUST WOOSNAM, April 25, 1982,
  23. ^ a b c Sports Illustrated, The Nasl: It's Alive But On Death Row, May 7, 1984,
  24. ^ a b c d Sports Illustrated, A Modified American Plan, March 31, 1980,
  25. ^ a b c Sports Illustrated, Tea Party Brewing In The Nasl, August 6, 1979,
  26. ^ Big Soccer, What killed the NASL?, August 13, 2012,
  27. ^, NASL TV: A Short History,
  28. ^ a b c d e Sports Illustrated, It's Time For Trimming Sails In The Nasl, December 1, 1980,
  29. ^ Hewson, Marillyn A.; Urquhart, Michael A. (1983). "Unemployment Continued to Rise in 1982 as Recession Deepened" (PDF). Monthly Labor Review. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 106 (2): 3–12. Retrieved April 10, 2011. 
  30. ^ a b This Year in American Soccer – 1981,
  31. ^ a b Los Angeles Times, WORLD CUP USA '94 : A Model Failure : The NASL's Collapse Serves as a Painful Reminder of What a New League Should Not Do, July 3, 1994,
  32. ^ a b c The Telegraph, Soccer: Is it still the sport of the '80s?, November 12, 1981,,2551485
  33. ^ "NASL suspends operations for 1985" page 1D Minneapolis Star and Tribune March 29, 1985
  34. ^ "Rowdies fold, can't find buyer". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. February 2, 1994. p. 6C. Retrieved October 20, 2016 – via Google News Archive Search. 
  35. ^ David Wangerin. Soccer in a Football World: The Story of America's Forgotten Game. Temple University Press. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-1-59213-884-5. 
  36. ^ "1982 WCQ Mexico @ Canada (Toronto, October 18, 1980)". Retrieved October 23, 2016. 
  37. ^ Flachsbart, Harold (March 20, 1971). "Fans Get A Kick Out Of Hoc-Soc". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. 6. Retrieved August 14, 2016. 
  38. ^ Chick, Bob (March 29, 1976). "Indoor Kicks May Go Awry". The Evening Independent. p. 1-C. Retrieved 20 October 2016 – via Google News Archive Search. 
  39. ^ Tierney, Mike (January 20, 1979). "Rowdies want to come indoors". St. Petersburg Times. p. 3c. Retrieved 20 October 2016 – via Google News Archive Search. 
  40. ^ Beard, Randy (January 29, 1979). "Rowdies Had To Do More". The Evening Independent. p. 1-C. Retrieved 20 October 2016 – via Google News Archive Search. 
  41. ^ "TAMPA BAY ROWDIES APPRECIATION BLOG: 01/04/09 – 01/05/09". Retrieved January 2, 2013. 
  42. ^,2148965
  43. ^ "Aztecs Face Toros For NASL Title". The Press-Courier. August 24, 1974. p. 19. Retrieved 20 October 2016 – via Google News Archive Search. 
  44. ^ [1] Archived June 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  45. ^ "The Year in American Soccer – 1982". Retrieved October 16, 2013. 
  46. ^ "The Year in American Soccer – 1969". Retrieved October 16, 2013. 
  47. ^ a b "NASL Owners Vote To Remove Phil Woosnam". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Sarasota Herald-Tribune. April 25, 1982. 
  48. ^ "Nothing But Blue Skies Does Woosnam", Sports Illustrated, May 30, 1977.
  49. ^ "Toye new NASL boss". The Sun. December 13, 1984. p. F2. Retrieved 20 October 2016 – via Google News Archive Search. 
  50. ^ Richard Witzig (2006). The Global Art of Soccer. CusiBoy Publishing. pp. 179–. ISBN 978-0-9776688-0-9. 
  51. ^ "All-time American soccer statistics". Retrieved October 16, 2013. 
  52. ^ "Tampa Bay Rowdies Appreciation Blog". Retrieved October 16, 2013. 
  53. ^ "Cosmos Capture Soccer Bowl 78". The Morning Record and Journal. Aug 28, 1978. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Also On Wow


    Trending Now