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New World quail


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_World_quail
Updated: 2017-06-24T23:51Z
New World quail
Northern-bob-white-quail-tn1.jpg
Northern bobwhite
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Galliformes
Superfamily:Phasianoidea
Family:Odontophoridae
Gould, 1844
Genera

The New World quails or Odontophoridae are small birds only distantly related to the Old World quail, but named for their similar appearance and habits. The American species are in their own family Odontophoridae, whereas Old World quail are in the pheasant family Phasianidae. The family ranges from Canada through to southern Brazil, and two species, the California quail and the bobwhite quail, have been successfully introduced to New Zealand. The stone partridge and Nahan's partridge, both found in Africa, seem to belong to the family. Species are found across a variety of habitats from tropical rainforest to deserts, although few species are capable of surviving at very low temperatures. Thirty-four species are placed in ten genera.

Description

New World quail are generally short-winged, -necked and -tailed (although the genus Dendrortyx is long-tailed). The bills are short, slightly curved and serrated. The legs are short and powerful, and lack the spurs of many Old World galliformes. Although they are capable of short bursts of strong flight New World quails prefer to walk, and will run from danger (or hide), taking off explosively only as a last resort. Plumage varies from dull to spectacular, and many species have ornamental crests or plumes on the head. There is moderate sexual dichromism in plumage, with males having brighter plumage.

Behaviour and ecology

The New World quails are shy diurnal birds and generally live on the ground; even the tree quails which roost in high trees generally feed mainly on the ground. They are generalists with regards to their diet, taking insects, seeds, vegetation and tubers. Desert species in particular consume a lot of seeds.

Most of the information about the breeding biology of New World quails comes from North American species, which have been better studied than those of the Neotropics. The family is generally thought to be monogamous, and nest are constructed on the ground. Clutch sizes are large, a situation typical within the Galliformes, ranging from three to six eggs for the tree quail and wood quail, and as high as 10-15 for the northern bobwhite. Incubation takes between 16 and 30 days depending on the species. Chicks are precocial and quickly leave the nest to accompany the parents in large family groups.

Northern bobwhite and California quail are popular gamebirds, with many taken by hunters, but these species have also had their ranges increased to meet hunting demand and are not threatened. They are also artificially stocked. Some species are threatened by human activity, such as the bearded tree quail of Mexico, which is threatened by habitat loss and illegal hunting.

Species

Subspecies English names by Çınar 2015.[1]

  • Genus †Miortyx Miller 1944
  • Genus †Nanortyx Weigel 1963
  • Genus †Neortyx Holman 1961
  • Subfamily Ptilopachinae Bowie, Coehn & Crowe 2013
    • Genus Ptilopachus Swainson 1837
      • Nahan's partridge/forest francolin, Ptilopachus nahani (Dubois 1905)
      • Stone partridge/Bantam, Ptilopachus petrosus (Gmelin 1789)
        • P. p. brehmi Neumann 1908 (Kordofan stone partridge)
        • P. p. major Neumann 1908 (Abyssinian/Ethiopian stone partridge)
        • P. p. florentiae Ogilvie-Grant 1900 (Kenya stone partridge)
        • P. p. petrosus (Gmelin 1789)
  • Subfamily Odontophorinae Gould 1844 (New World quails)
    • Genus Rhynchortyx Ogilvie-Grant 1893
      • Banded/Tawny-faced quail, Rhynchortyx cinctus (Salvin 1876) Ogilvie-Grant 1893
        • R. c. pudibundus Peters 1929 (Honduran long-legged colin)
        • R. c. cinctus (Salvin 1876) (long-legged colin)
        • R. c. australis Chapman 1915 (southern long-legged colin)
    • Genus Oreortyx (Douglas 1829) Baird 1858
      • Mountain quail, Oreortyx pictus (Douglas 1829) Baird 1858
        • O. p. pictus (Douglas 1829) non Peters (northwestern mountain quail)
        • O. p. plumifer (Gould 1837) (plumed mountain quail)
        • O. p. russelli Miller 1946 (pallid mountain quail)
        • O. p. eremophilus van Rossem 1937 (desert mountain quail)
        • O. p. confinis Anthony 1889 (southern mountain quail)
    • Genus Dendrortyx Gould 1844
      • Bearded wood partridge, Dendrortyx barbatus Gould 1846
      • Buffy-crowned wood partridge, Dendrortyx leucophrys (Gould 1844)
        • D. l. leucophrys (Gould 1844) (Guatemalan/Nicaraguan long-tailed partridge)
        • D. l. hypospodius Salvin 1896 (Costa Rican long-tailed partridge)
      • Long-tailed wood partridge, Dendrortyx macroura (Jardine & Selby 1828)
        • D. m. macroura (Jardine & Selby 1828) (eastern long-tailed partridge)
        • D. m. griseipectus Nelson 1897 (gray-breasted long-tailed partridge)
        • D. m. diversus Friedmann 1943 (Jalisco long-tailed partridge)
        • D. m. striatus Nelson 1897 (Guerreran long-tailed partridge)
        • D. m. inesperatus Phillips 1966
        • D. m. oaxacae Nelson 1897 (Oaxacan long-tailed partridge)
    • Genus Philortyx Gould 1846 non Des Murs 1854
    • Genus Colinus Goldfuss 1820 (Bobwhites)
      • Colinus eatoni
      • Colinus suilium Brodkorb 1959
      • Colinus hibbardi Wetmore 1944
      • Crested bobwhite, Colinus cristatus (Linnaeus 1766)
        • C. c. mariae Wetmore 1962
        • C. c. panamensis Dickey & van Rossem 1930 (Panama crested quail)
        • C. c. decoratus (Todd 1917) (Magdalena crested quail)
        • C. c. littoralis (Todd 1917) (littoral crested quail)
        • C. c. cristatus (Linnaeus 1766)
        • C. c. horvathi (Madarász 1904) (Horvath's quail)
        • C. c. barnesi Gilliard 1940
        • C. c. sonnini (Temminck 1815) (Sonnini's crested quail)
        • C. c. mocquerysi (Hartert 1894) (Mocquerys's/Cumana crested quail)
        • C. c. leucotis (Gould 1844) (white-eared crested quail)
        • C. c. badius Conover 1938 (Cauca Valley crested quail)
        • C. c. bogotensis Dugand 1943 (Bogotá crested bobwhite)
        • C. c. parvicristatus (Gould 1843) (short-crested quail)
      • Spot-bellied bobwhite, Colinus leucopogon (Lesson 1842)
        • C. l. incanus Friedmann 1944 (Guatemalan white-breasted bobwhite)
        • C. l. hypoleucus (Gould 1860) (Salvadorean White-breasted Bobwhite)
        • C. l. leucopogon (Lesson 1842) (white-throated quail)
        • C. l. leylandi (Moore 1859) (Leyland's spot-bellied quail)
        • C. l. sclateri (Bonaparte 1856) (Sclater's spot-bellied bobwhite)
        • C. l. dickeyi Conover 1932 (Dickey's spot-bellied bobwhite)
      • Yucatan/Black-throated bobwhite, Colinus nigrogularis (Gould 1843)
        • C. n. caboti van Tyne & Trautman 1941
        • C. n. persiccus van Tyne & Trautman 1941 (Progreso black-throated bobwhite)
        • C. n. nigrogularis (Gould 1843)
        • C. n. segoviensis Ridgway 1888 (Honduran black-throated quail)
      • masked/Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus 1758)
        • C. v. graysoni subspecies-group
          • C. v. graysoni (Lawrence 1867) (Grayson’s Bobwhite)
          • C. v. nigripectus Nelson 1897 (puebla northern bobwhite)
        • C. v. pectoralis subspecies-group
          • C. v. pectoralis (Gould 1843) (black-breasted bobwhite)
          • C. v. godmani Nelson 1897 (Godman's northern bobwhite)
          • C. v. minor Nelson 1901 (least northern bobwhite)
          • C. v. thayeri Bangs & Peters 1928 (Thayer's northern bobwhite)
        • C. v. coyolcos subspecies-group
          • C. v. nelsoni (Nelson's bobwhite
          • C. v. ridgwayi Brewster 1885 (Masked northern Bobwhite)
          • C. v. insignis Nelson 1897 (Guatemalan northern bobwhite)
          • C. v. salvini Nelson 1897 (Salvin's northern bobwhite)
          • C. v. coyolcos (Statius Müller 1776) (coyolcos Bobwhite)
          • C. v. harrisoni Orr & Webster 1968 (Harrison's bobwhite)
          • C. v. atriceps (Ogilvie-Grant 1893) (black-headed northern bobwhite)
        • C. v. virginianus subspecies-group
          • C. v. aridus (Lawrence 1853) Aldrich 1942 (Jaumave northern bobwhite)
          • C. v. cubanensis (Gray 1846) (Cuban bobwhite)
          • C. v. floridanus (Coues 1872) (Florida bobwhite)
          • C. v. maculatus Nelson 1899 (spot-bellied northern bobwhite)
          • C. v. virginianus (Linnaeus 1758) (Eastern bobwhite)
          • C. v. taylori Lincoln 1915 (plains bobwhite)
          • C. v. texanus (Lawrence 1853) (Texas bobwhite)
    • Genus Callipepla Wagler 1832 (Crested quails)
      • Callipepla shotwelli (Brodkorb 1958)
      • Scaled quail/blue quail Callipepla squamata (Vigors 1830)
        • C. s. pallida Brewster 1881 (northern scaled quail)
        • C. s. hargravei Rea 1973 (Upper Sonoran scaled quail)
        • C. s. castanogastris Brewster 1883 (chestnut-bellied scaled quail)
        • C. s. squamata (Vigors 1830) (Altiplano scaled quail)
      • Elegant quail, Callipepla douglasii (Vigors 1829)
        • C. d. douglasii (Vigors 1829) (Douglas's elegant quail)
        • C. d. bensoni Ridgway 1887 (Benson's elegant quail)
        • C. d. vanderbilti (Islas Marías elegant quail)
        • C. d. teres (Friedmann 1943) (Jalisco elegant quail)
      • California quail, Callipepla californica (Shaw 1798)
        • C. c. brunnescens (Ridgway 1884) (coastal California quail)
        • C. c. canfieldae (van Rossem 1939) (Owen Valley quail)
        • C. c. californica (Shaw 1798) (valley California quail)
        • C. c. catalinensis (Grinnell 1906) (Santa Catalina California quail)
        • C. c. achrustera (Peters 1923) (San Lucas California quail)
      • Gambel's quail, Callipepla gambelii (Gambel 1843)
        • C. g. gambelii (Gambel 1843) (southwestern Gambel’s quail)
        • C. g. ignoscens Friedmann 1943 (Texas Gambel's quail)
        • C. g. fulvipectus Nelson 1899 (fulvous-breasted Gambel's quail)
        • C. g. stephensi Phillips 1959 (Stephen's Gambel's quail)
    • Genus Cyrtonyx Gould 1844
      • Cyrtonyx cooki Gutierrez et al. 1981
      • Ocellated quail, Cyrtonyx ocellatus (Gould 1837)
      • Montezuma quail, Cyrtonyx montezumae (Vigors 1830)
        • C. m. mearnsi Nelson 1900 (Mearns's Montezuma quail)
        • C. m. montezumae (Vigors 1830) (Massena harlequin quail)
        • C. m. rowleyi Phillips 1966
        • C. m. sallei Verreaux 1859 (Salle's Montezuma/spot-breasted quail)
    • Genus Dactylortyx (Gambel 1848) Ogilvie-Grant 1893
      • long-toed/Singing quail, Dactylortyx thoracicus (Gambel 1848) Ogilvie-Grant 1893
        • D. t. pettingilli Warner & Harrell 1957
        • D. t. thoracicus (Gambel 1848) (Veracruz singing quail)
        • D. t. sharpei Nelson 1903 (Yucatán singing quail)
        • D. t. paynteri Warner & Harrell 1955
        • D. t. devius Nelson 1898 (Jaliscan singing quail)
        • D. t. melodus Warner & Harrell 1957
        • D. t. chiapensis Nelson 1898 (Chiapan singing quail)
        • D. t. dolichonyx Warner & Harrell 1957 [Dactylortyx thoracicus calophonus]
        • D. t. salvadoranus Dickey & van Rossem 1928 (Salvadorean long-toed partridge)
        • D. t. fuscus Conover 1937 (Honduran long-toed partridge)
        • D. t. conoveri Warner & Harrell 1957
    • Genus Odontophorus Vieillot 1816 (wood quails)
      • Spotted wood quail, Odontophorus guttatus (Gould 1838)
      • Marbled wood quail, Odontophorus gujanensis (Gmelin 1789)
        • O. g. castigatus Bangs 1901 (Chiriquí partridge)
        • O. g. marmoratus (Gould 1843) (marbled partridge)
        • O. g. medius Chapman 1929 (Duida partridge)
        • O. g. gujanensis (Gmelin 1789) (Guianan partridge)
        • O. g. buckleyi Chubb 1919 (Buckley's partridge)
        • O. g. rufogularis Blake 1959
        • O. g. pachyrhynchus Tschudi 1844 (thick-billed partridge)
        • O. g. simonsi Chubb 1919 (Simon's partridge)
      • Starred wood quail, Odontophorus stellatus (Gould 1843)
      • Spot-winged wood quail, Odontophorus capueira (von Spix 1825)
      • Black-eared wood quail, Odontophorus melanotis Salvin 1865
        • O. m. verecundus Peters 1929 (Honduran partridge)
        • O. m. melanotis Salvin 1865 (black-eared wood quail)
      • Rufous-fronted wood quail, Odontophorus erythrops Gould 1859
        • O. e. parambae Rothschild 1897 (Paramba quail)
        • O. e. erythrops Gould 1859 (chestnut-eared partridge)
      • Stripe-faced wood quail, Odontophorus balliviani Gould 1846
      • Chestnut wood quail, Odontophorus hyperythrus Gould 1858
      • Dark-backed wood quail, Odontophorus melanonotus Gould 1861
      • Rufous-breasted wood quail, Odontophorus speciosus Tschudi 1843
        • O. s. soderstromii Lönnberg & Rendahl 1922 (Soderstrom's partridge)
        • O. s. speciosus Tschudi 1843 (rufous-breasted partridge)
        • O. s. loricatus Todd 1932 (Bolivian partridge)
      • Tacarcuna wood quail, Odontophorus dialeucos Wetmore 1963
      • Gorgeted wood quail, Odontophorus strophium (Gould 1844)
      • Venezuelan wood quail, Odontophorus columbianus Gould 1850
      • Black-breasted wood quail, Odontophorus leucolaemus Salvin 1867
      • Black-fronted wood quail, Odontophorus atrifrons Allen 1900
        • O. a. atrifrons Allen 1900 (black-fronted partridge)
        • O. a. variegatus Todd 1919 (variegated partridge)
        • O. a. navai Aveledo & Pons 1952

Phylogeny

Living Odontophoridae based on the work by John Boyd.[2]


Ptilopachinae
Ptilopachus

P. nahani (Dubois 1905)



P. petrosus (Gmelin 1789)




Odontophorinae

Rhynchortyx cinctus (Salvin 1876) Ogilvie-Grant 1893





Oreortyx pictus (Douglas 1829) Baird 1858



Dendrortyx

?D. leucophrys (Gould 1844)



D. barbatus Gould 1846



D. macroura (Jardine & Selby 1828)





Philortyx fasciatus (Gould 1844) Gould 1846



Callipepla


C. squamata (Vigors 1830)



C. douglasii (Vigors 1829)





C. gambelii (Gambel 1843)



C. californica (Shaw 1798)




Colinus

?C. leucopogon (Lesson 1842)



C. cristatus (Linnaeus 1766)




C. nigrogularis (Gould 1843)



C. virginianus (Linnaeus 1758)









Cyrtonyx

C. ocellatus (Gould 1837)



C. montezumae (Vigors 1830)





Dactylortyx thoracicus (Gambel 1848) Ogilvie-Grant 1893


Odontophorus

O. guttatus (Gould 1838)





O. gujanensis (Gmelin 1789)





O. stellatus (Gould 1843)



O. capueira (von Spix 1825)





O. melanotis Salvin 1865



O. erythrops Gould 1859







O. balliviani Gould 1846





?O. hyperythrus Gould 1858



?O. melanonotus Gould 1861



O. speciosus Tschudi 1843





?O. dialeucos Wetmore 1963



?O. strophium (Gould 1844)



?O. columbianus Gould 1850



?O. leucolaemus Salvin 1867



O. atrifrons Allen 1900












See also

References

  1. ^ Çınar, Ümüt (November 2015). "02 → Gᴀʟʟᴏᴀɴsᴇʀᴀᴇ : Gᴀʟʟɪfᴏʀᴍᴇs". English Names of Birds. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  2. ^ Boyd, John (2007). "Odontophoridae" (PDF). John Boyd's website. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 

External links

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