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Siddhi


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siddhi
Updated: 2017-09-07T16:29Z

File:AshtaSiddhi.jpg
Ganesha with the Ashta Siddhi, personified as goddesses - painting by Raja Ravi Varma (1848-1906)

Siddhis (Sanskrit and Pali : सिद्धि; Tamil: சித்தி; Tibetan: དངོས་གྲུབ, THL: ngödrup,[web 1]) are spiritual, paranormal, supernatural, or otherwise magical powers, abilities, and attainments that are the products of spiritual advancement through sādhanās such as meditation and yoga.[1] The term ṛddhi (Pali: iddhi, "psychic powers") is often used interchangeably in Buddhism.

Etymology

Siddhi is a Tamil noun which can be translated as "perfection", "accomplishment", "attainment", or "success".[2]In Tamil the word Siddhar/Chitthar refers to someone who has attained the Siddhic powers & knowledge. Chitta is pure consciousness/knowledge in Sanskrit also.

Method

According to scholars, the Visuddhimagga is one of the extremely rare texts within the enormous literatures of various forms of Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism to give explicit details about how spiritual masters were thought to actually manifest supernormal abilities.[3] Abilities such as flying through the air, walking through solid obstructions, diving into the ground, walking on water and so forth are performed by changing one element, such as earth, into another element, such as air.[4] The individual must master kasina meditation before this is possible.[5] Dipa Ma, who trained via the Visuddhimagga, was said to demonstrate these abilities.[6]

Usage in Hinduism

In the Panchatantra, a siddhi may be the term for any unusual skill or faculty or capability.

In Shaivism sect of hinduism , siddhi is defined as " Extraordinary powers of the soul, developed through consistent meditation and often uncomfortable and grueling tapas, or awakened naturally through spiritual maturity and yogic sādhanā " [7]

Eight primary siddhis

In Hinduism, eight classical siddhis (Ashta Siddhi) or eight great perfections are:[8]

  • Aṇimā: reducing one's body even to the size of an atom
  • Mahima: expanding one's body to an infinitely large size
  • Garima: becoming infinitely heavy
  • Laghima: becoming almost weightless
  • Prāpti: ability to be anywhere at will
  • Prākāmya: realizing whatever one desires
  • Iṣṭva: supremacy over nature
  • Vaśtva: control of natural forces
  • "kāma-avasayitva": complete satisfaction (It is mentioned is some texts)[9][10]

Bhagavata Purana

Five siddhis of yoga and meditation

In the Bhagavata Purana, the five siddhis of yoga and meditation are:

  1. trikālajñatvam: knowing the past, present and future
  2. advandvam: tolerance of heat, cold and other dualities
  3. para citta ādi abhijñatā: knowing the minds of others and so on
  4. agni arka ambu viṣa ādīnām pratiṣṭambhaḥ: checking the influence of fire, sun, water, poison, and so on
  5. aparājayah: remaining unconquered by others[11]

Ten secondary siddhis

In the Bhagavata Purana, Krishna describes the ten secondary siddhis:

  • anūrmimattvam: Being undisturbed by hunger, thirst, and other bodily appetites
  • dūraśravaṇa: Hearing things far away
  • dūradarśanam: Seeing things far away
  • manojavah: Moving the body wherever thought goes (teleportation/astral projection)
  • kāmarūpam: Assuming any form desired
  • parakāya praveśanam: Entering the bodies of others
  • svachanda mṛtyuh: Dying when one desires
  • devānām saha krīḍā anudarśanam: Witnessing and participating in the pastimes of the gods
  • yathā sańkalpa saḿsiddhiḥ: Perfect accomplishment of one's determination
  • ājñāpratihatā gatiḥ: Orders or commands being unimpeded[12]

Samkhya

In the Samkhyakarika and Tattvasamasa, there are references to the attainment of eight siddhis by which one becomes free of the pain of ignorance, one gains knowledge, and experiences bliss.The eight siddhis hinted at by Kapila in the Tattvasamasa are as explained in verse 51 of the Samkhyakarika:[13]

  1. Uuha: based on the samskaras of previous births, the attainment of knowledge about the twenty-four Tatwas gained by examining the determinable and the indeterminable conscious and the non-conscious constituents of creation.
  2. Shabda: knowledge gained by associating with an enlightened person (Guru – upadesh).
  3. Addhyyan: knowledge gained through study of the Vedas and other standard ancillary texts.
  4. Suhritprapti: knowledge gained from a kind-hearted person, while engaged in the spread of knowledge.
  5. Daan: knowledge gained regardless of one’s own needs while attending to the requirements of those engaged in the search of the highest truth.
  6. Aadhyaatmik dukkh-haan: freedom from pain, disappointment, etc. that may arise due to lack of spiritual, metaphysical, mystic knowledge and experience.
  7. Aadhibhautik dukkh-haan: freedom from pain etc. arising from possessing and being attached to various materialistic gains.
  8. Aadhidaivik dukkh-haan: freedom from pain etc. caused by fate or due to reliance on fate.

The attainment of these eight siddhis renders one no longer in a painful state of ignorance but in possession of greater knowledge and experience of bliss. The aim of Samkhya is to eliminate all kinds of physical and mental pains and to receive liberation.

Patanjali's Yoga Sutras

In Patañjali's Yoga Sutras IV.1 it is stated, Janma auṣadhi mantra tapaḥ samādhijāḥ siddhayaḥ, "Accomplishments may be attained through birth, the use of herbs, incantations, self-discipline or samadhi".[14]

Hindu gods associated with gaining siddhi

In Hinduism, both Ganesha and Hanuman possess the eight siddhis[15] and can give one access to them.

Usage in Sikhism

In Sikhism, siddhi means "insight". "Eight Siddhis" is used for insight of the eight qualities of Nirankar or a.k.a. Akal Purakh mentioned in the Mul Mantar in the Guru Granth Sahib. God has eight qualities: Oankar, Satnam, Kartapurakh, Nirbhao, Nirvair, AkaalMurat, Ajooni and Svaibhang. The one who has insight of these qualities is called Sidh or Gurmukhi.

Usage in Vajrayana Buddhism

In Tantric Buddhism, siddhi specifically refers to the acquisition of supernatural powers by psychic or magical means or the supposed faculty so acquired. These powers include items such as clairvoyance, levitation, bilocation, becoming as small as an atom, materialization, having access to memories from past lives. The term is also used in this sense in the Sarva-darśana-saṃgraha of Madhvacharya (1238–1317).

See also

Notes

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References

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Sources

Published sources

  • Apte, A (n.d.), A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary 
  • Davidson, Ronald M. (2004), Indian Esoteric Buddhism: Social History of the Tantric Movement, Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 
  • Iyengar, B.K.S. (2002), Light on the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali, Hammersmith, London, UK: Thorsons 

Web-sources

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Further reading

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  1. ^ White, David Gordon; Dominik Wujastyk (2012). Yoga In Practice. Princeton: Princeton UP. p. 34. 
  2. ^ Apte & year unknown, p. 986.
  3. ^ Jacobsen, edited by Knut A. (2011). Yoga Powers. Leiden: Brill. p. 93. ISBN 9789004212145. 
  4. ^ Jacobsen, edited by Knut A. (2011). Yoga Powers. Leiden: Brill. p. 83–86. ISBN 9789004212145. 
  5. ^ Jacobsen, edited by Knut A. (2011). Yoga Powers. Leiden: Brill. p. 83–86. ISBN 9789004212145. 
  6. ^ Schmidt, Amy (2005). Dipa Ma. Windhorse Publications Ltd. p. Chapter 9 At Home in Strange Realms. 
  7. ^ Subramuniyaswami, Sivaya (1997). glossary - Siddhi. USA: Himalayan Accedamy. ISBN 9780945497974.  Unknown parameter |Search= ignored (help)
  8. ^ Ashta siddhi
  9. ^ subramuniyaswami, sivaya (1997). glossary - Siddhi. USA: Himalayan Accedamy. ISBN 9780945497974.  Unknown parameter |Search= ignored (help)
  10. ^ Danielou, Alain (1987). While the Gods Play: Shaiva Oracles and Predictions on the Cycles of History and the Destiny of Mankind; Inner Traditions International.
  11. ^ The Concise Srimad Bhagavatam, trans. Swami Venkatesananda, SUNY Press 1989, ISBN 0-7914-0149-9
  12. ^ The Concise Srimad Bhagavatam, trans. Swami Venkatesananda, SUNY Press 1989, ISBN 0-7914-0149-9
  13. ^ The Samkhya Karika, with commentary of Gaudapada. Published in 1933 by The Oriental Book Agency, Poona
  14. ^ Iyengar 2002, p. 246.
  15. ^ Lord Hanuman & Siddhis[2]
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