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Temperate climate


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperate_climate
Updated: 2017-07-18T22:58Z
The different geographical zones
An updated Köppen–Geiger climate map

In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions.[1] These regions generally have more variety in temperature over the course of the year and more distinct changes between seasons compared with tropical climates, where such variations are often more moderate.[2][3]

Zones and climates

The north temperate zone extends from the Tropic of Cancer (approximately 23.5° north latitude) to the Arctic Circle (approximately 66.5° north latitude). The south temperate zone extends from the Tropic of Capricorn (approximately 23.5° south latitude) to the Antarctic Circle (at approximately 66.5° south latitude).[4][5]

In some climate classifications, the temperate zone is often divided into several smaller climate zones, based on latitude. These include humid subtropical climate, Mediterranean climate, oceanic, and continental climate.

Subtropical climates are generally located between 23.5° and 35.0° north or south latitude on the eastern or leeward sides of landmasses. This climate has long, generally hot, summers and short, mild winters, with annual rainfall often concentrated in the warmest part of the year. These climates may occur in southern Asia, the southeastern United States, parts of eastern Australia, and in eastern coastal South America.

Mediterranean climates occur generally between 30° and 42° north and south latitude, on the western sides of landmasses. This climate has long hot summers and short mild winters; however, seasonal rainfall is the opposite of that of the subtropical humid type, with a winter or cool season rainfall peak being typical. These climates occur near the rimlands of the Mediterranean Sea, in western Australia, in California, and in the southernmost areas of South Africa.

The oceanic climates occur in the higher middle latitudes, between 45° and 60° north and south latitude. They are created by the onshore flow from the cool high latitude oceans to their west. This causes the climate to have cool summers and cool (but not cold) winters. These climates are frequently cloudy. Annual rainfall is spread throughout the entire year. Regions with this climate include Western Europe, northwestern North America, and parts of New Zealand.

The continental climates occur in middle latitudes, between 35° or 40° and 55°. These climates are normally inland or on leeward sides of landmasses. They feature warm to hot summers and cold winters, with a large interseasonal temperature variation. Regions with this climate include northern temperate Asia, the northern United States, southern Canada, and parts of northeastern Europe.

The vast majority of the world's human population resides in temperate zones, especially in the northern hemisphere, due to its greater mass of land.[6] The richest temperate flora in the world is found in southern Africa, where some 24,000 taxa (species and infraspecific taxa) have been described.[7]

Agriculture

Farming is a large-scale practice in the temperate regions due to the plentiful rainfall and warm summers. because most agricultural activity occurs in the spring and summer, cold winters have a small effect on agricultural production. Extreme winters or summers have a huge impact on the productivity of agriculture.[8]

Urbanization

Temperate regions have the majority of the world's population, which leads to large cities. There are a couple factors why the climate of large city landscapes differs from the climate of rural areas. One factor is the strength of the absorption rate of builds and asphalt, which is higher than natural land. The other large factor is the burning of fossil fuels from buildings and vehicles. These factors have led to the average climate of cities to be warmer than surrounding areas.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Education Scotland. "Weather & climate Change Climates around the world". educationscotland.gov.uk. 
  2. ^ "Latitude & Climate Zones". The Environmental Literacy Council. Retrieved 15 July 2017. 
  3. ^ "Patterns of Climate". Retrieved 15 July 2017. 
  4. ^ McColl, R. W. (2005). Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 1. (Facts on File Library of World Geography). New York: Facts on File. p. 919. ISBN 0-816-05786-9. 
  5. ^ "Solar Illumination: Seasonal and Diurnal Patterns". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved October 4, 2012. 
  6. ^ Cohen, Joel E.; Christopher Small (November 24, 1998). "Hypsographic demography: The distribution of human population by altitude". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 95. Washington, D.C.: The Academy. pp. 14009–14014. PMC 24316Freely accessible. 
  7. ^ Germishuizen, G.; Meyer, N. L. (2003). "Plants of southern Africa: An annotated checklist". Strelitzia. 14: 1–1231. Retrieved June 23, 2015. 
  8. ^ a b Burroughs, William J (1999). The Climate Revealed. New York: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. p. 114. ISBN 0 521 77081 5. 
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