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Union of South American Nations


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_of_South_American_Nations
Updated: 2017-09-09T17:19Z

Union of South American
Flag
Motto: "Soy del Sur" (I am from the South)[1]
UNASUR members (dark green)
UNASUR members (dark green)
Administrative centers
Largest cities
Official languages
Religion
DemonymSouth American
TypeContinental union
Membership
Leaders
23x15px Mauricio Macri
23x15px Ernesto Samper
LegislatureSouth American Parliament
EstablishmentFormation
8 December 2004
23 May 2008
• Treaty in force
11 March 2011
Area
• Total
17,715,335[4] km2 (6,839,929 sq mi)
• Water (%)
8.91[5]
Population
• 2015 estimate
418,175,687[6]
• Density
23.6/km2 (61.1/sq mi) (194th)
GDP (PPP)2014 estimate
• Total
$6.564 trillion[7] (4th)
• Per capita
$15,855[7] (76th)
GDP (nominal)2014 estimate
• Total
$4.173 trillion[7] (4th)
• Per capita
$10,080[7] (69th)
Gini (2014)Positive decrease 48.8
high
HDI (2017)Increase 0.751[8]
high
Currency
Time zone(UTC-2 to -6)
Calling codesee list
Internet TLD

The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Spanish: Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; Portuguese: União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Dutch: Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising 12 South American countries.

The UNASUR Constitutive Treaty was signed on 23 May 2008, at the Third Summit of Heads of State, held in Brasília, Brazil.[9] According to the Constitutive Treaty, the Union's headquarters will be located in Quito, Ecuador.[3] On 1 December 2010, Uruguay became the ninth state to ratify the UNASUR treaty, thus giving the union full legality.[10][11] As the Constitutive Treaty entered into force on 11 March 2011, UNASUR became a legal entity during a meeting of Foreign Ministers in Mitad del Mundo, Ecuador, where they had laid the foundation stone for the Secretariat Headquarters.[12] The South American Parliament will be located in Cochabamba, Bolivia, while the headquarters of its bank, the Bank of the South are located in Caracas, Venezuela.[3]

On 4 May 2010, at a heads of state summit held in Campana, 75 km (47 mi) north of Buenos Aires, former Argentine President Néstor Kirchner was unanimously elected the first Secretary General of UNASUR for a two-year term. The new post was conceived as a first step towards the creation of a permanent bureaucratic body for a supranational union, which will eventually replace the political bodies of Mercosur and CAN. The headquarters of the secretariat is located in Quito.

After Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela, Uruguay became the ninth nation to ratify the constitutive treaty of the organization on 1 December 2010, thus completing the minimum number of ratifications Necessary for the entry into force of the Treaty, on 11 March 2011[13][10][11] With the entry into force of the Treaty,[14] Unasur became a legal entity during the Summit Ministers of Foreign Affairs, in Mitad del Mundo, Ecuador, where the cornerstone was laid for the headquarters of the General Secretariat of the Union.[15][16]

Overview

At the Third South American Summit on 8 December 2004, presidents or representatives from 12 South American nations signed the Cusco Declaration, a two-page statement of intent announcing the foundation of the South American Community. Panama and Mexico attended the signing ceremony as observers.

The group announced their intention to model the new community after the European Union[citation needed] including a common currency, parliament, and passport. According to Allan Wagner Tizón, former Secretary General of the Andean Community, a complete union like that of the EU should be possible by 2019.

The mechanics of the new entity came out of the First South American Community of Nations Heads of State Summit, which was held in Brasília on 29–30 September 2005. An important operating condition of UNASUR is that no new institutions will be created in the first phase, so as not to increase bureaucracy, and the community will use the existing institutions belonging to the previous trade blocs.

History

Background

File:Presidentes de países da América do Sul durante a primeira reunião do CASA (4).jpg
Heads of State of the then South American Community of Nations in Brasilia in September 2005.

Between the 15th and 19th centuries, the Spanish and Portuguese colonization brought about the establishment and development of colonial empires in the Americas that integrated politically, economically and culturally vast extensions of the continent each with their respective metropolis.

Since the Spanish American wars of independence a trend towards the political integration of the newly born republics of Hispanic America became strong in the thinking of several independence leaders, influenced in turn by the Spanish Enlightenment and the French and American revolutions. A notable early exponent of this trend was Francisco de Miranda, who envisioned a federated republic encompassing all of Hispanic America, which he called "Colombia".

The independence war efforts saw the concurrence of integrated armies composed by Spanish Americans of diverse regions on both sides of the conflict (v.g. Patriots and Royalists), and fighting all over the territories of many future nations. For example, the Army of the Andes which was gathered in the United Provinces of the River Plate fought in Chile, Peru and Ecuador, and later integrated with Simón Bolívar's Army (which itself included troops of future Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador) to further fight in Peru and the Upper Peru

By the 1820s, the main proponent of a federation of the newly born republics was Simón Bolívar, although this idea was shared by many contemporaneous, notably including José de San Martín and Bernardo de Monteagudo, under either republican or constitutional monarchical governments. In 1826, Bolívar summoned a conference to be held in Panama, which was to be known as the "Amphictyonic" Congress of Panama because of the parallelism with the Hellenic Amphictyonic League. The Congress was attended by Gran Colombia (including present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador), the Federal Republic of Central America (including present-day Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala), the United Mexican States, and Peru. The ostensible intention was to form a defensive league that could prevent foreign expansionism and foster the interests of the Spanish American republics. The Congress' conclusions, however, were not ratified by the participants, except for Gran Colombia. Soon after, both Gran Colombia and the United Provinces of Central America fell apart and the whole of Hispanic America was balkanized by competing national governments.

By the 1990s, however, Brazil had consolidated as the most powerful country in South America (accounting for half of the regional GDP) and began to promote the notion of a united South America (a new regional framing) where Brasilia would be pivotal.[17] The project did not take hold until the United States' foreign policy priorities turned to other regions in the 2000s.

Formation

File:Unasul 12.jpg
South American presidents gathered during an extraordinary meeting for the signing of the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty in May 2008 in Brasilia.

The complete integration between the Andean Community and the Mercosur nations was formalized during the meeting of South American heads of state that took place on 23 May 2008 in Brasília.[18]

In the 2004 South American Summit, representatives of twelve South American nations signed the Cuzco Declaration, a two-page letter of intent announcing the establishment of the then-named "South American Community of Nations". Panama and Mexico were present as observers. The leaders announced the intention of modeling the new community in the mold of the European Union, including a unified passport, a parliament and, eventually, a single currency. The then Secretary General of the Andean Community Allan Wagner speculated that an advanced union such as the EU should be possible within the next fifteen years.

Naming

On 28 December 2005, Chilean former foreign minister Ignacio Walker proposed that the Union's former designation, the South American Community of Nations, abbreviated as CSN, be changed to South American Union; nevertheless, many members stated to him that that proposal had already been rejected to prevent confusion since its acronym of U.S.A. (Spanish: Unión Sudamericana) would be easily confused for the United States of America. In the press, the phrase "United States of South America" was bandied about as an analogy to the United States to reflect the economic and political power that the union would have on the world stage.[19][20][21][22][23][24][25]

The name was finally changed on 16 April 2007 to Union of South American Nations. The new name was jointly agreed by all member states during the first day of meeting at the First South American Energy Summit,[26] held at Isla Margarita, Venezuela.

Structure

File:UNASUR (Ecuador).jpg
Headquarters of UNASUR

The presidents of each member nation will have an annual meeting, which will be the top political mandate. The first meeting was held in Brasilia on 29 and 30 September 2005. The second meeting was held in Cochabamba, Bolivia, on 8 and 9 December 2006. The third meeting was held in Brasília – this meeting should have taken place in Indias (Colombia), but was postponed because of tension between Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. It was at this meeting that UNASUR was formalized and in which the Constitutive Treaty of the organization was signed.[27]

The foreign ministers of each country will meet once every six months. They will make concrete proposals for action and executive decision. The Permanent Representative Committee of the President of Mercosur and the Director of the Mercosur Department, the Secretary General of the Andean Community, the Secretary General of ALADI and the Permanent Secretaries of any institution for regional cooperation and integration, Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, Among others, will also attend these meetings.[28][citation needed]

On 9 December 2005, the Strategic Reflection Commission on the South American Integration Process was created. It consists of 12 members, whose function is to elaborate proposals that will help in the process of integration among the South American nations. These proposals were to be made at the 2nd UNASUR Meeting (2006).[29]

The Executive Committee, created at the 2nd UNASUR Meeting, was transformed into the Political Commission or Council of Deputies, in accordance with the Decisions of the Political Dialogue. The text prepared by heads of state to form UNASUR was approved at the 3rd UNASUR Meeting in Brasília on 23 May 2008. This meeting was scheduled to take place in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, on 24–28 January 2008, but was postponed because of tensions between Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela.

Secretary General

A Secretary General is the legal representative of the Secretariat in Quito, Ecuador. Former Ecuadorian president Rodrigo Borja was nominated to this position but resigned a few days before the formation of the USAN in May 2008. On 4 May, Néstor Kirchner of Argentina was appointed as the first Secretary General, despite resistance from Colombia, Uruguay, and Peru. After the death of Néstor Kirchner in 2010, there was a period of time when the position went unfilled, which eventually ended when María Emma Mejía Vélez was elected in March of 2011.

Secretary General Country Beginning of the mandate End of the mandate
1Néstor Kirchner23x15px Argentina4 May 201027 October 2010
Interim
2María Emma Mejía Vélez23x15px Colombia9 May 201111 June 2012
3Alí Rodríguez Araque23x15px Venezuela11 June 201231 July 2014
4Ernesto Samper23x15px Colombia1 August 2014Incumbent

Presidency pro tempore

The temporary presidency will be governed by a year and will be rotating among the member countries between each UNASUR meeting. They have already presided over UNASUR: Chile, from May 2008 to August 2009, Ecuador, from August 2009 to November 2010. The current president of UNASUR is Mauricio Macri, President of Argentina. According to the document "Decisions of the Political Dialogue", which was signed during the 1st South American Energy Meeting, a permanent general cabinet will be created and headquartered in Quito, Ecuador.[30]

President pro tempore Country Beginning of the Mandate End of the Mandate
1Michelle Bachelet23x15px Chile23 May 200810 August 2009
2Rafael Correa23x15px Ecuador10 August 200926 November 2010
3Bharrat Jagdeo23x15px Guyana26 November 201029 October 2011
4Fernando Lugo23x15px Paraguay29 October 201122 June 2012
5Ollanta Humala23x15px Peru22 June 201230 August 2013
6Dési Bouterse23x15px Suriname30 August 20134 December 2014
7José Mujica23x15px Uruguay4 December 20141 March 2015
8Tabaré Vázquez23x15px Uruguay1 March 201517 April 2016
9Nicolás Maduro23x15px Venezuela17 April 201621 April 2017
10Mauricio Macri23x15px Argentina21 April 2017incumbent

Councils and bodies

The organisations of UNASUR are:[31][32][33]

Ministerial Councils

There are twelve Ministerial Councils of the USAN.[34]

Other institutions

Council of Economy and Finance

File:UNASUR, Reunión Ordinaria del Consejo de Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores (9623068687).jpg
Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the members of Unasur.

The Economic and Financial Council of Unasur was established on 12 August 2011, in Buenos Aires, during a meeting of Finance Ministers and representatives of the Central Banks of the twelve countries of the region. Argentine Deputy Economy Minister Roberto Feletti said that the Council would study measures to strengthen regional trade in national currencies without the use of dollar. "We have reached an agreement on three axes of work and one of them is to move forward with multilateral payment mechanisms, to sustain trade and protect the volumes of reserves," Feletti said, noting that trade between countries in the region moves 120 billion dollars Yearly. "The use of national currencies, excluding the dollar, protects reserves and increases trade because there are lower transaction rates." He also detailed plans of the technical groups focused on the development and strengthening of Development Banks, such as the Andean Development Corporation (CAF) and the Bank of the South. He explained that the technicians will review the Latin American Reserve Fund (FLAR), aiming at in order to give greater capacity to intervene to the governments of the bloc in case of speculative attacks against currency or sovereign debt.[35]

Council of South American Defense

File:Bandeiras UNASUL.jpg
Flags of the member countries of UNASUR in front of the headquarters of the organization, in Ecuador.

The creation of a Council of South American Defense was proposed by Brazil and discussed for the first time at a summit of the South American presidents in April 2008. The project was extensively discussed throughout 2008. The then Brazilian Defense Minister, Nelson Jobim, said in April 2008 that the Council would be formed after the "political" decision of the presidents who participated in the launch of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) on 23 May 2008.[36][37]

On 15 December 2008, at the extraordinary UNASUR summit, the creation of the South American Defense Council was finally approved. The defense ministers of Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. The Defense Council is responsible for developing joint defense policies, promoting the exchange of personnel among the Armed Forces of each country, conducting joint military exercises, participating in United Nations peace operations, promoting the exchange of analyzes on the world defense scenarios and the integration of industrial bases of military equipment.[38][39][40]

South American Council of Health

The South American Council of Health is a UNASUR body established and approved on 16 December 2008, which brings together health ministers of the member states to develop regional programs in the region. Area of public health to be jointly financed by the South American bloc, to coordinate the energy policy of Unasur.[41] It was created by decision of the Heads of State and Government of UNASUR, meeting extraordinarily in the Coast of Sauipe, Bahia, Brazil in December 2008. It was finally constituted on 21 April 2009 in Santiago, Chile.[37]

The South American Institute of Government in Health of UNASUR is an intergovernmental entity of public character that has as main objective to promote the exchange, the critical reflection, the knowledge management and the generation of innovations in the field of Health policy and governance.[42]

Summits

File:2010 Unasur summit.JPG
South American leaders during the Unasur 4th Summit, in Georgetown, Guyana.
File:Unasur Lima 4.jpg
Heads of State at the 5th UNASUR Meeting in Lima, in Peru.

The first Union summit was held in Brasilia on 23 May 2008, in which the Constitutive Treaty was signed. Due to the political crisis that Bolivia faced, pro-tempore president Michelle Bachelet convened an emergency summit in Santiago, Chile, on 15 September 2008. The leaders of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Brazil took part in this summit, in addition to President Michelle Bachelet, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela and the Secretary General of the OAS, José Miguel Insulza.[43] After a six-hour meeting between the leaders in the Palacio de La Moneda, they finally declared their support for President Evo Morales's government and gave "its absolute support to Bolivia."[44]

No Date Country Host Host leader
1st 15 September 2008 23x15px Chile Santiago de Chile Michelle Bachelet
2nd 10 August 2009 23x15px Ecuador Quito Rafael Correa
3rd 28 August 2009 23x15px Argentina Bariloche Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
4th 26 November 2010 23x15px Guyana Georgetown Bharrat Jagdeo
5th 29 October 2011 23x15px Paraguay Asunción Fernando Lugo
6th 30 November 2012 23x15px Peru Lima Ollanta Humala
7th 30 August 2013 23x15px Suriname Paramaribo Dési Bouterse[45]
8th 4 December 2014 23x15px Ecuador Guayaquil Rafael Correa[46]
9th23 April 201623x15px EcuadorQuitoRafael Correa
  • The July 2014 summit was a joint UNASUR/BRICS summit.

There have been other presidential extraordinary meetings, such as:

Demographics

UNASUR countries has together 410 million inhabitants and a rate of population growth of about 0.6% per year. There are several demographics such as tropical forests, the Atacama Desert and the icy portions of Patagonia. On the other hand, the continent presents regions of high population density, such as the great urban centers. The population is formed by descendants of Europeans (mainly Spaniards, Portuguese and Italians), Africans and indigenous. There is a high percentage of mestizos that vary greatly in composition according to each place. There is also a minor population of Asians, specially in Brazil. The two main languages are by far Spanish and Portuguese, followed by French, English and Dutch in smaller numbers. Economically, Brazil, Argentina and Colombia are the wealthiest and most developed nations in the continent.


Languages

File:Interior do Museu da Língua Portuguesa em São Paulo, Brasil.jpg
Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo. Portuguese is the most spoken language in South America.

Portuguese, Spanish, English and Dutch are the official languages of UNASUR. Spanish is the official language of Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. Dutch is the official language of Suriname; English is the official language of Guyana[48]

Indigenous languages of South America include Quechua in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina, Chile and Colombia; Wayuunaiki in northern Colombia (La Guajira) and northwestern Venezuela (Zulia); Guaraní in Paraguay and, to a much lesser extent, in Bolivia; Aymara in Bolivia, Peru, and less often in Chile; and Mapudungun is spoken in certain pockets of southern Chile and, more rarely, Argentina. At least three South American indigenous languages (Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani) are recognized along with Spanish as national languages.

Other languages found in South America include, Hindustani and Javanese in Suriname; Italian in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Venezuela and Chile; and German in certain pockets of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. German is also spoken in many regions of the southern states of Brazil, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch being the most widely spoken German dialect in the country; among other Germanic dialects, a Brazilian form of East Pomeranian is also well represented and is experiencing a revival. Welsh remains spoken and written in the historic towns of Trelew and Rawson in the Argentine Patagonia. There are also small clusters of Japanese-speakers in Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Arabic speakers, often of Lebanese, Syrian, or Palestinian descent, can be found in Arab communities in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela and in Paraguay.[49]

Religion

An estimated 90% of South Americans are Christians[50] (82% Roman Catholic, 8% other Christian denominations mainly Traditional Protestants and Evangelicals but also Orthodoxy), accounting for ca. 19% of Christians worldwide.

Both Buenos Aires and São Paulo figure among the largest Jewish populations by urban area. Argentina also has the largest number of Muslims in Latin America, around 500,000

Japanese Buddhism, Shinto-derived Japanese New Religions are common in Brazil and Peru. Korean Confucianism is especially found in Brazil while Chinese Buddhism and Chinese Confucianism is spread throughout the continent. Due to the immigration of Indonesian workers, Suriname and Guyana have a large Hindu and Muslim community. Also Kardecist Spiritism can be found in several countries along with Afro-American religions.

Religion in South America
CountriesChristians Roman Catholics Other Christians No religion (atheists and agnostics)
23x15px Argentina88%77%11%11%
23x15px Bolivia96%74%22%4%
 Brazil86%64%22%9%
23x15px Chile70%57%13%25%
23x15px Colombia 92%80%12%7%
23x15px Paraguay95%85%10%2%
23x15px Peru94%81%13%3%
23x15px Suriname51%29%22%5%
23x15px Uruguay58%47%11%41%
23x15px Venezuela88%71%17%8%

Economy

Quotes panel of BM&F Bovespa, in São Paulo, the Brazil's stock exchange and 12th biggest of the world.
Financial center of Santiago, Chile
File:Sembrado de soja en argentina.jpg
Soya crops in the province of Buenos Aires. Argentina is the third largest producer of soybeans in the world.
File:Refinería de Amuay VE.jpg
Paraguaná Refinery Complex, considered the second largest and largest capacity in the world.
File:Boa Viagem Beach - Recife - Pernambuco - Brazil.jpg
Recife, Brazil. The country is a featured tourism destination.

The South American economy in recent decades has been transformed from backward economies to fully competitive and efficient markets. If something is characterizing the economy of UNASUR in recent years, it is its excessive growth and high competitiveness, leading to world profits alongside China and India. This economic situation is marked by policies favoring market opening, aimed at the exploitation of natural resources, industrialization and a very attractive destination for investors. In spite of all this, the situation is marked by immense regional differences and by an irregularity in the distribution of the income that stands out at world level, although it is recognized as one of the regions of the world where poverty and inequality have been reduced more energetically in recent decades.

There are regions with very high industrialization, where the main economic flows move, while there are sectors where there are hardly any industries. Most of the possessions are concentrated in the hands of a minority of the population, whereas millions of individuals experience different levels of privations arriving, in extreme cases, to the absolute poverty. However, it is necessary to emphasize that poverty in South America has been reduced in a surprising way, especially in the Southern Cone and North of South America. Today, thanks to the development of many South American nations, it has allowed the world, their eyes on some governments, even forming part of economic blocs like G20 and BRICS. Although this reality is common to the entire South American group, the countries of the so-called Southern Cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay) present more positive socioeconomic data and high HDI rates.

The South American economy is divided between the mineral extractivism in the Amazon region and the agriculture present in practically all its States. Industrialization is of medium level to high in diverse regions, although very strong the presence of local industries of origin Foreign (multinational). The extraction and export of oil is notable in Venezuela, which owns some of the largest world reserves, in Argentina and in the Atlantic Ocean compared to the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Bolivia stands out for the production of natural gas, with important reserves of this matter that in recent years have led to what has been known as the "Gas War."

The richest and most industrialized regions of the continent are: São Paulo State in Brazil, where its main financial center (in its capital), the main technological centers in South America (São Carlos, São José dos Campos and Campinas) and its largest and most mobile port -; Followed by the Fluvial-Industrial axis of Paraná between Rosario and La Plata in Argentina centered in Buenos Aires (second most active port and city with higher GDP); And for the also Brazilian State of Rio de Janeiro.

Brazil and Argentina are considered the regional leaders of South America. They are the two largest nations and the two largest economies in South America. These are the only South American countries that are members of the G-20 and Brazil, specially, as member of the BRICS. They're also the largest producers and exporters of agricultural products of the continent.

The highest nominal GDP in 2017 is Brazil (8th worldwide) with 2,140,940 trillion dollars, followed by Argentina (21th worldwide) with 628,935 billion dollars, and Colombia (31st at the global level) with 306,439 billion dollars.

The highest GDP in 2017 is in Brazil (8th worldwide) with 3,216,031 trillion dollars, Argentina (27th worldwide) with 912,816 billion dollars, and Colombia (31st Worldwide) with 720,151 billion dollars.

The highest GDP per capita in 2017 is held by Chile with US$24,113, followed by Uruguay with 21,527 and Argentina with 20,047. In terms of nominal per capita GDP, the ranking is headed by Uruguay with US$15,679, Chile with US$13,576, and Argentina with US$12,503.

Common Market

File:Map of member states of unasur english.svg
Members of UNASUR and main regional highways.

One of the initiatives of Unasur is the creation of a common market, starting with the elimination of tariffs for products considered non-sensitive until 2014 and for sensitive products until 2019.[51]

The Initiative for the Integration of the Regional Infrastructure of South America is currently underway, with investments estimated at US$38 billion from the Inter-American Development Bank, the Andean Development Corporation, the National Bank for Economic and Social Development and the Financial Fund for Development of the Plata Basin.[52]

The initial integration plans through the infrastructure cooperation of UNASUR came with the construction of the Bioceanic Corridor and the Interoceanic Highway. Roads that will link more firmly the countries of the Pacific coast, especially Chile and Peru, with the countries of the Atlantic coast like Brazil and Argentina, extending highways through the continent, allowing better connections of the ports to Bolivia and more internal parts of Argentina, Peru And Brazil. The Pacific Highway, between Peru and Brazil, began to be built in September 2005, financed 60% by Brazil and 40% by Peru, and was completed in December 2010.[52]

The South American Energy Ring will interconnect Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay with natural gas from various sources, such as the Camisea Gas project in Peru and the Tarija gas deposits in Bolivia. Although this proposal has been signed and ratified, political and economic difficulties in Argentina and Bolivia have delayed this initiative, and to this day, this agreement remains more a protocol than a current project, since Chile and Brazil are already building LNG terminals for Gas from external suppliers.[52]

Economic development

File:GDP PPP 2016 Selection EN.svg
Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocks) in no particular order

Presidents of the seven founding countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay, Venezuela and Uruguay) officially launched the South American Bank in Buenos Aires in December 2007. The heads of all the founding countries were at the ceremony, with the exception of President Tabaré Vázquez of Uruguay. The capital will be US$7b, with Venezuela responsible for US$3b and Brazil US$2b. The headquarters will be located in Caracas with offices in Buenos Aires and La Paz.[53][54]

The Bank of the South will finance economic development projects to improve local competitiveness and to promote the scientific and technological development of the member states. Its founding charter affirms that the bank will promote projects in a "stable and equal" manner and priorities will be oriented towards reinforcing South American integration, reducing asymmetries, and promoting an egalitarian distribution of investments.

The Brazilian Minister, Guido Mantega, stated that the bank is not similar to the International Monetary Fund; it will be a credit institution similar to the World Bank.

Monetary policy

The Bank of the South (Portuguese: Banco do Sul, Spanish: Banco del Sur, Dutch: Bank van het Zuiden, English Bank of the South) will establish monetary policy and finance development projects. One of the objectives of monetary union is to establish a Single South American currency. Support for the creation of this currency was provided in January 2007 by Peruvian President Alan García,[55] and other South American authorities expressed themselves in favor, as Bolivian President Evo Morales in April of that year, who proposed that the currency Only one denominated "Pacha" ("earth" in Quechua language), however, except for the right of each country to suggest a name for the common currency.[56]

The South American economy is divided between mineral industry in the Amazon region and agriculture, which is present in practically all member states. Industrialization is advanced in several regions, although there is a strong presence of local industries of foreign (multinational) origin. In Brazil and Argentina the level of industrialization is intense.[57]

Defense policy

File:Unasul 1.jpg
Soldier of the Brazilian Army patrols the surroundings of the Summit of Heads of State of Unasur in 2008, held in Brasilia.

The South American Defense Council (CDS) was proposed by Venezuela and Brazil to serve as a mechanism for regional security, promoting military co-operation. From the beginning Brazil, Argentina and Chile, the countries that took the leadership of the project, made clear that they did not intend to form a NATO-like alliance, but a cooperative security arrangement, enhancing multilateral military cooperation, promoting confidence and security building measures and fostering defense industry exchange. Colombia initially refused to join the defense council due to the strong military ties it has with the United States through the Plan Colombia. However, after reviewing the proposal they decided to join on 20 July 2008.[58][59]

Shortly following the signing by Colombia's President, President of Chile Michelle Bachelet appointed a working group to investigate and draft a plan for the new council. Finally, on 10 March 2009, the 12 nation members held, in Chile, the first meeting of the newly formed council.[60]

In mid-2010, UNASUR played a key role in mediating the 2010 Colombia–Venezuela diplomatic crisis. On 1 September 2010, the agency "UnasurHaití" was created to provide US$100 million in help to Haiti.[61]

Democracy

File:Bicentenario Argentina - Presidentes.jpg
South american presidents in front of the Casa Rosada, Buenos Aires, during the bicentenary of the May Revolution.

On 26 November 2010, the Additional Protocol on Commitment to Democracy was signed in the city of Georgetown, Cooperative Republic of Guyana.[62] The protocol derives from the mandate established in the Buenos Aires Declaration of 1 October 2010, which affirms that member states will not tolerate a challenge to institutional authority, nor attempt to strike a legitimately constituted civilian power, adopting concrete and immediate measures in case of breach of constitutional order. It is applicable "in the event of a breach or threat of a breach of the democratic order, of a violation of the constitutional order or in any situation that endangers the legitimate exercise of power and the observance of democratic values and principles."[63]

In the event of such a situation, the Council of Heads of State and Government or the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs may be convened extraordinarily by the Pro-Tempore Presidency of the Union, ex officio or at the request of the affected State or another member of UNASUR, to deliberate on the application of sanctions to the affected state. Among the political and diplomatic sanctions envisaged by the Protocol, the following stand out:[63]

  • Suspension of the right to participate in the different organs and instances of Unasur[63]
  • Partial or total closure of land borders with the affected State, including suspension or limitation of trade, air and sea transportation, communications, energy supply, services and supply.

Free movement of people

Visits by South American citizens to any South American independent country of up to 90 days only require an identification document issued by the traveler's country. On 24 November 2006, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Uruguay abolished visa requirements for tourists between any of those nations.[64]

Mercosur, along with its Associate members of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Ecuador established that their territories together form an "area of free residence with the right to work" to all its citizens, with no additional requirements other than nationality. The Free Movement and Residence Agreement was established in the Brasília summit based in a previous document signed on 6 December 2002.[65]

Citizens of any Mercosur countries will have a simplified process in temporary residence visa of up to two years in any other member countries, with the requirements of a valid passport, birth certificate, and no criminal record. Temporary residence can become permanent if a licit means of living can be verified.

At a summit in Guayaquil, Ecuador on 4 December 2014, UNASUR general secretary Ernesto Samper announced, "We have approved the concept of South American citizenship," including the creation of a single passport.[66]

Electoral monitors

UNASUR has also initiated the creation of electoral monitor teams that could replace the monitors from the Organization of American States.[67]

Participating nation states

Signed
In force
Document
1969
1969
Cartagena Agreement
1991
1991
Treaty of Asunción
2004
2004
Cusco Declaration
2008
2011
Constitutive Treaty
1px 1px 1px 1px 1px 1px 1px 1px
      Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)
  Andean Pact (Andean Community of Nations)
    Mercosur 1px 1px 1px 1px 1px 1px 1px 1px
       
File:Unasur countries color.svg
UNASUR member states. (Territories in white not part of UNASUR.)

1 These countries are also considered to be associate members of Mercosur.
2 These countries are also considered to be associate members of the Andean Community.
C Caribbean Community (CARICOM) member state
L Latin American Integration Association (ALADI) member state
M Accessing member to Mercosur
S Suspended

Participating non-South American territories

The following territories situated outside South America are part of member states and therefore participate:

Non-participating South American states and territories

The following parts of South America are territories of non-South American states and therefore do not participate:

See also

Bibliography

  • José Antonio Sanahuja. "Post-liberal regionalism in South America: the case of Unasur", European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies (EUI-RSCAS) 2012/05. Pdf version downloadable in[73]
  • José Briceño. "From the South American Free Trade Area to the Union of South American Nations: The Transformations of a Rising Regional Process". Latin American Policy, Volume 1, Issue 2, pages 208–229, December 2010
  • Luis Schenoni. "Unveiling the South American Balance". Estudos Internacionais, Volume 2, Issue 2, pages 215–232, December 2014. PDF version downloadable[74]
  • Anne Marie Hoffmann: "South America's Neoliberal Turnaround: The End for Regional Social Policy", GIGA Focus Afrika No. 06/2016

References

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External links

Coordinates: 0°0′16″S 78°27′14″W / 0.00444°S 78.45389°W / -0.00444; -78.45389
  1. ^ http://www.nodal.am/2016/11/unasur-lanzan-la-campana-soy-del-sur/
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  3. ^ a b c Goodman, Joshua (23 May 2008). "South American Presidents Agree to Form Unasur Bloc (Update3)". Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 February 2011. 
  4. ^ "Surface area (sq. km)". World Development Indicators. 
  5. ^ The World Factbook. The World Factbook.
  6. ^ "2015 Revision of World Population Prospects". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 
  7. ^ a b c d World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015 edition.
  8. ^ Calculated using UNDP data for the member states with weighted population.
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  11. ^ a b "Uruguay's ratification gives Unasur legal status (nine out of twelve)". MercoPress. 2 December 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2011. 
  12. ^ "Sede de Unasur llevará el nombre de Néstor Kirchner" (in Spanish). telesur. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. 
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  14. ^ Tratado Constitutivo da Unasul
  15. ^ "Sede da Unasul levará nome de Néstor Kirchner". Terra. 9 March 2011. 
  16. ^ Segun el chanceler uruguayo, Luis Almagro: Unasur, un factor de "estabilidad, democracia y paz" en la región. Abc, 2 de dezembro de 2010.
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  18. ^ Ministros da América do Sul vão a Caracas preparar encontro da Unasul Archived 5 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ The phrase has been used in the past for this same purpose. It has never been officially proposed or used. Collazo, Ariel B. La Federación de Estados: Única solución para el drama de América Latina. n/d, circa 1950–1960. OCLC 25422930
  20. ^ Duhalde, Eduardo (13 July 2004). "Hacia los Estados Unidos de Sudamérica." La Nación.
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  32. ^ organos de UNASUR
  33. ^ :: Unión de Naciones Suramericanas :: UNASUR ::. TRATADO CONSTITUTIVO DE LA UNIÓN DE NACIONES SURAMERICANAS Archived 25 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ Consejos Sectoriales Archived 27 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  35. ^ Ministros da Unasul querem ampliar comércio sem dólar. Estadão, 12 de agosto de 2011.
  36. ^ "Conselho de defesa não prevê ação militar em conflitos, diz Jobim". BBC Brasil. 15 April 2008.  Retirado em 15 de abril de 2008.
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  38. ^ "Cúpula aprova criação do Conselho de Defesa Sul-Americano". Agência Brasil. 16 December 2008. 
  39. ^ "Quatro cúpulas de presidentes latino-americanos reúnem-se esta semana na Bahia". Agência Brasil. 14 December 2008. 
  40. ^ "Chefes de Estado sul-americanos se encontram hoje, em Brasília, para uma reunião de cúpula extraordinária da União de Nações Sul-americanas – Unasul". Agência Brasil. 23 May 2008. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. 
  41. ^ Unasul aprova criação do Conselho Sul-Americano de Defesa
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  45. ^ Surinam asume la presidencia pro témpore de la Unasur — teleSUR
  46. ^ http://www.telesurtv.net/news/Lo-mas-destacado-de-la-VIII-cumbre-de-la-Unasur-20141204-0090.html
  47. ^ "Cumbre de Unasur acordó anoche en Lima respaldar al electo Nicolás Maduro" (in Spanish). La República. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013. 
  48. ^ "The Languages spoken in Guyana". Studylands. Retrieved 2016-04-12. 
  49. ^ Karam, John Tofik (2013). "On the Trail and Trial of a Palestinian Diaspora: Mapping South America in the Arab–Israeli Conflict, 1967–1972". Journal of Latin American Studies. 45 (4): 751–777. doi:10.1017/S0022216X13001156. 
  50. ^ Christians – Pew Research Center
  51. ^ "UNASUL: Uma grande nação!". Superior Tribunal de Justiça. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
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  55. ^ Peruvian president calls for single currency in South America. People's Daily Online (17/01/07). Retirado em 22 de setembro de 2007.
  56. ^ Evo propõe criação de moeda única para a Unasul. Retirado em 21 de Janeiro de 2008.
  57. ^ La industria bancaria latinoamericana contemplará más inversiones, dice un nuevo reporte de Economist Intelligence Unit Strategica Comunicación Global, 9 June 2008. Accessadate 18 February 2015.
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  61. ^ "La Unasur ya tiene oficina en Haití". Página/12 (in Spanish). 1 September 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2011. 
  62. ^ Protocolo Adicional ao Tratado Constitutivo da Unasul sobre Compromisso com a Democracia.
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  64. ^ AP
  65. ^ ¿Puedo residir o trabajar libremente en otros Estados Partes del MERCOSUR? "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
  66. ^ Venezuelanalysis.com
  67. ^ Obama in Cartagena: No change, dwindling hope – Opinion – Al Jazeera English
  68. ^ "Historia". Secretary General of UNASUR. Retrieved 2013-07-12. 
  69. ^ "Falkland Islands government – organisation". Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2008. 
  70. ^ Treaty of Lisbon: Annexes.
  71. ^ See Sovereignty of the Falkland Islands and Sovereignty of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
  72. ^ Johnlall, Raphael (18 July 2013). "Venezuela President Maduro talked energy, transport while in T&T". Trinidad and Tobago Guardian. Guardian Media. Retrieved 29 September 2013. Apart from Mercosur, Maduro also invited T&T to be "incorporated" into Union of South American Nations (Unasur) because of its geographical proximity to the South American mainland." Maduro said. 
  73. ^ http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/20394/RSCAS_2012_05.pdf?sequence=1
  74. ^ https://www.academia.edu/12944490/Unveiling_the_South_American_Balance
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