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Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia

Updated: 2016-07-03T17:18Z
Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia
Classification and external resources
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Patient UKVaginal intraepithelial neoplasia
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Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) is a condition that describes premalignant histological findings in the vagina characterized by dysplastic changes.[1]

The disorder is rare and generally has no symptoms.[2] VAIN can be detected by the presence of abnormal cells in a Papanicolaou test (Pap smear).[2]

Like cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, VAIN comes in three stages, VAIN 1, 2, and 3.[3] In VAIN 1, a third of the thickness of the cells in the vaginal skin are abnormal, while in VAIN 3, the full thickness is affected.[3] VAIN 3 is also known as carcinoma in-situ, or stage 0 vaginal cancer.[3]

Infection with certain types of the human papillomavirus ("high-risk types") may be associated with up to 80% of cases of VAIN.[4] Vaccinating girls with HPV vaccine before initial sexual contact has been shown to reduce incidence of VAIN.[5]

One study found that most cases of VAIN were located in the upper third of the vagina, and were multifocal.[6] In the same study, 65 and 10% patients with VAIN also had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively.[6]

In another study, most cases of VAIN went into remission after a single treatment, but about 5% of the cases studied progressed into a more serious condition despite treatment.[7]


  1. ^ Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. p. 1192. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. 
  2. ^ a b Diakomanolis, E; Stefanidis, K; Rodolakis, A; Haidopoulos, D; Sindos, M; Chatzipappas, I; Michalas, S (2002). "Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: report of 102 cases.". European journal of gynaecological oncology. 23 (5): 457–9. PMID 12440826. 
  3. ^ a b c Cancer Research UK (2002). The stages of cancer of the vagina. CancerHelp UK. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
  4. ^ Cancer Research UK (2002). Risks and causes of vaginal cancer. CancerHelp UK. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
  5. ^ "FDA Approves Expanded Uses for Gardasil to Include Preventing Certain Vulvar and Vaginal Cancers". 2008-09-12. Retrieved 2010-02-13. 
  6. ^ a b Dodge, JA; Eltabbakh, GH; Mount, SL; Walker, RP; Morgan, A (2001). "Clinical features and risk of recurrence among patients with vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.". Gynecologic Oncology. 83 (2): 363–9. PMID 11606098. doi:10.1006/gyno.2001.6401. 
  7. ^ Sillman, FH; Fruchter, RG; Chen, YS; Camilien, L; Sedlis, A; McTigue, E (1997). "Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: risk factors for persistence, recurrence, and invasion and its management.". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 176 (1 Pt 1): 93–9. PMID 9024096. doi:10.1016/S0002-9378(97)80018-X. 

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