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  2. Particle filter - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Particle_filter

    The state-space model can be nonlinear and the initial state and noise distributions can take any form required. Particle filter techniques provide a well-established methodology [1] [3] [4] for generating samples from the required distribution without requiring assumptions about the state-space model or the state distributions.

  3. Maximum a posteriori estimation - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximum_a_posteriori...

    In Bayesian statistics, a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate is an estimate of an unknown quantity, that equals the mode of the posterior distribution.The MAP can be used to obtain a point estimate of an unobserved quantity on the basis of empirical data.

  4. Data collection - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_collection

    Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established system, which then enables one to answer relevant questions and evaluate outcomes.

  5. Life insurance - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_insurance

    An early form of life insurance dates to Ancient Rome; “burial clubs” covered the cost of members' funeral expenses and assisted survivors financially. In 1816, an archeological excavation in Minya, Egypt (under an Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire) produced a Nerva–Antonine dynasty-era tablet from the ruins of the Temple of Antinous in Antinoöpolis, Aegyptus that prescribed the rules and ...