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  2. Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co. - Wikipedia

    On February 24, 1919, Congress passed the Child Labor Tax Law which imposed an excise tax of 10 percent on the net profits of a company that employed children. The law defined child labor as “under the age of sixteen in any mine or quarry, and under the age of fourteen in any mill, cannery, workshop, factory, or manufacturing establishment.”

  3. Finance - Wikipedia

    Personal finance is defined as "the mindful planning of monetary spending and saving, while also considering the possibility of future risk". Personal finance may involve paying for education, financing durable goods such as real estate and cars, buying insurance, investing, and saving for retirement.

  4. Hammer v. Dagenhart - Wikipedia

    Drexel Furniture, banned Congress from levying a tax on goods produced through child labour entered into interstate trade; both rulings caused the introduction of the Child Labor Amendment. The ruling of the Court was later overturned and repudiated in a series of decisions handed down in the late 1930s. Specifically, Hammer v.

  5. Welfare state in the United Kingdom - Wikipedia

    Over half of families living below the breadline have at least one relative with a disability. Cuts include, tax credits (£4.6bn), universal credit (£3.6bn), child benefit (£3.4bn), disability benefits (£2.8bn), Employment and Support Allowance and Incapacity Benefit (£2bn) and housing benefit (£2.3bn).

  6. Taxing and Spending Clause - Wikipedia

    In 1922, the Supreme Court struck down a 1919 tax on child labor in Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co., commonly referred to as the "Child Labor Tax Case". The Court had previously held that Congress did not have the power to directly regulate labor, and found the law at issue to be an attempt to indirectly accomplish the same end.

  7. First-tier Tribunal - Wikipedia

    The First-tier Tribunal is part of the courts and tribunals service of the United Kingdom.It was created in 2008 as part of a programme, enacted in the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007, to rationalise the tribunal system, and has since taken on the functions of 20 previously existing tribunals.

  8. List of professional associations in the United Kingdom

    The UK government has a list of professional associations approved for tax purposes (this includes some non-UK based associations, which are not included here). There is a separate list of regulators in the United Kingdom for bodies that are regulators rather than professional associations.

  9. Contract - Wikipedia

    Contracts have existed since antiquity, forming the basis of trade since the dawn of commerce and sedentism during the Neolithic Revolution.A notable early modern development in contract law was the emergence of the hawala system in the Indian subcontinent and the Arab world, under which a series of contractual relationships formed the basis of an informal value transfer system spanning the ...