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  2. Exponential growth - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_growth

    Exponential growth is a process that increases quantity over time at an ever-increasing rate. It occurs when the instantaneous rate of change (that is, the derivative) of a quantity with respect to time is proportional to the quantity itself. Described as a function, a quantity undergoing exponential growth is an exponential function of time ...

  3. Exponential decay - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_decay

    Exponential decay. A quantity undergoing exponential decay. Larger decay constants make the quantity vanish much more rapidly. This plot shows decay for decay constant ( λ) of 25, 5, 1, 1/5, and 1/25 for x from 0 to 5. A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

  4. Relative growth rate - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relative_growth_rate

    RGR is a concept relevant in cases where the increase in a state variable over time is proportional to the value of that state variable at the beginning of a time period. In terms of differential equations, if is the current size, and its growth rate, then relative growth rate is. If the RGR is constant, i.e., a solution to this equation is.

  5. Rule of 72 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_72

    These rules apply to exponential growth and are therefore used for compound interest as opposed to simple interest calculations. They can also be used for decay to obtain a halving time. The choice of number is mostly a matter of preference: 69 is more accurate for continuous compounding, while 72 works well in common interest situations and is ...

  6. Logistic function - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logistic_function

    A logistic function or logistic curve is a common S-shaped curve ( sigmoid curve) with the equation. where. , the value of the function's midpoint; , the supremum of the values of the function; , the logistic growth rate or steepness of the curve. [1] Standard logistic function where. For values of in the domain of real numbers from to , the S ...

  7. Bateman equation - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bateman_equation

    In nuclear physics, the Bateman equation is a mathematical model describing abundances and activities in a decay chain as a function of time, based on the decay rates and initial abundances. The model was formulated by Ernest Rutherford in 1905 [1] and the analytical solution was provided by Harry Bateman in 1910. [2]

  8. Power law - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_law

    To the right is the long tail, and to the left are the few that dominate (also known as the 80–20 rule ). In statistics, a power law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a relative change in the other quantity proportional to a power of the change, independent of the initial ...

  9. Doubling time - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doubling_time

    The doubling time is a characteristic unit (a natural unit of scale) for the exponential growth equation, and its converse for exponential decay is the half-life. As an example, Canada's net population growth was 2.7 percent in the year 2022, dividing 72 by 2.7 gives an approximate doubling time of about 27 years.