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  2. Exponential growth - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_growth

    Exponential growth is a process that increases quantity over time at an ever-increasing rate. It occurs when the instantaneous rate of change (that is, the derivative) of a quantity with respect to time is proportional to the quantity itself. Described as a function, a quantity undergoing exponential growth is an exponential function of time ...

  3. Relative growth rate - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relative_growth_rate

    RGR is a concept relevant in cases where the increase in a state variable over time is proportional to the value of that state variable at the beginning of a time period. In terms of differential equations, if is the current size, and its growth rate, then relative growth rate is. . If the RGR is constant, i.e., , a solution to this equation is.

  4. Doubling time - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doubling_time

    The doubling time is a characteristic unit (a natural unit of scale) for the exponential growth equation, and its converse for exponential decay is the half-life. As an example, Canada's net population growth was 2.7 percent in the year 2022, dividing 72 by 2.7 gives an approximate doubling time of about 27 years.

  5. Rule of 72 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_72

    In finance, the rule of 72, the rule of 70 [1] and the rule of 69.3 are methods for estimating an investment 's doubling time. The rule number (e.g., 72) is divided by the interest percentage per period (usually years) to obtain the approximate number of periods required for doubling. Although scientific calculators and spreadsheet programs ...

  6. Exponential decay - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_decay

    Exponential decay. A quantity undergoing exponential decay. Larger decay constants make the quantity vanish much more rapidly. This plot shows decay for decay constant ( λ) of 25, 5, 1, 1/5, and 1/25 for x from 0 to 5. A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

  7. Malthusian growth model - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malthusian_growth_model

    A Malthusian growth model, sometimes called a simple exponential growth model, is essentially exponential growth based on the idea of the function being proportional to the speed to which the function grows. The model is named after Thomas Robert Malthus, who wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), one of the earliest and most ...

  8. Half-life - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Half-life

    Half-life (symbol t½) is the time required for a quantity (of substance) to reduce to half of its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly unstable atoms undergo radioactive decay or how long stable atoms survive. The term is also used more generally to characterize any type of exponential (or, rarely ...

  9. Stretched exponential function - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stretched_exponential_function

    The stretched exponential function. is obtained by inserting a fractional power law into the exponential function. In most applications, it is meaningful only for arguments t between 0 and +∞. With β = 1, the usual exponential function is recovered. With a stretching exponent β between 0 and 1, the graph of log f versus t is ...