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In nuclear physics, the Bateman equation is a mathematical model describing abundances and activities in a

**decay**chain as a function of time, based on the**decay**rates and initial abundances. The model was formulated by Ernest Rutherford in 1905 [1] and the analytical**solution**was provided by Harry Bateman in 1910. [2]Exponential

**decay**. A quantity undergoing exponential**decay**. Larger**decay**constants make the quantity vanish much more rapidly. This plot shows**decay**for**decay**constant ( λ) of 25, 5, 1, 1/5, and 1/25 for x from 0 to 5. A quantity is subject to exponential**decay**if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.RGR is a concept relevant in cases where the increase in a state variable over time is proportional to the value of that state variable at the beginning of a time period. In terms of differential equations, if is the current size, and its

**growth**rate, then relative**growth**rate is. . If the RGR is constant, i.e., , a**solution**to this equation is.Exponential

**growth**is a process that increases quantity over time at an ever-increasing rate. It occurs when the instantaneous rate of change (that is, the derivative) of a quantity with respect to time is proportional to the quantity itself. Described as a function, a quantity undergoing exponential**growth**is an exponential function of time ...A Malthusian

**growth**model, sometimes called a simple exponential**growth**model, is essentially exponential**growth**based on the idea of the function being proportional to the speed to which the function grows. The model is named after Thomas Robert Malthus, who wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), one of the earliest and most ...In finance, the rule of 72, the rule of 70 [1] and the rule of 69.3 are methods for estimating an investment 's doubling time. The rule number (e.g., 72) is divided by the interest percentage per period (usually years) to obtain the approximate number of periods required for doubling. Although scientific

**calculators**and spreadsheet programs ...The Lotka–Volterra equations, also known as the Lotka–Volterra predator–prey model, are a pair of first-order nonlinear [disambiguation needed] differential equations, frequently used to describe the dynamics of biological systems in which two species interact, one as a predator and the other as prey. The populations change through time ...

The doubling time is a characteristic unit (a natural unit of scale) for the exponential

**growth**equation, and its converse for exponential**decay**is the half-life. As an example, Canada's net population**growth**was 2.7 percent in the year 2022, dividing 72 by 2.7 gives an approximate doubling time of about 27 years.