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2. ### Propagation of uncertainty - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propagation_of_uncertainty

In statistics, propagation of uncertainty (or propagation of error) is the effect of variables' uncertainties (or errors, more specifically random errors) on the uncertainty of a function based on them.

3. ### Computer programming - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_programming

In the 1880s Herman Hollerith invented the concept of storing data in machine-readable form. Later a control panel (plug board) added to his 1906 Type I Tabulator allowed it to be programmed for different jobs, and by the late 1940s, unit record equipment such as the IBM 602 and IBM 604, were programmed by control panels in a similar way, as were the first electronic computers.

4. ### Levenshtein distance - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levenshtein_distance

In information theory, linguistics, and computer science, the Levenshtein distance is a string metric for measuring the difference between two sequences. Informally, the Levenshtein distance between two words is the minimum number of single-character edits (insertions, deletions or substitutions) required to change one word into the other.

5. ### Checksum - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Checksum

Algorithms Parity byte or parity word. The simplest checksum algorithm is the so-called longitudinal parity check, which breaks the data into "words" with a fixed number n of bits, and then computes the exclusive or (XOR) of all those words.