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  2. Small-angle approximation - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small-angle_approximation

    It is readily seen that the second most significant (third-order) term falls off as the cube of the first term; thus, even for a not-so-small argument such as 0.01, the value of the second most significant term is on the order of 0.000 001, or 1 / 10 000 the first term.

  3. History of quantum mechanics - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_quantum_mechanics

    The history of quantum mechanics is a fundamental part of the history of modern physics.Quantum mechanics' history, as it interlaces with the history of quantum chemistry, began essentially with a number of different scientific discoveries: the 1838 discovery of cathode rays by Michael Faraday; the 1859–60 winter statement of the black-body radiation problem by Gustav Kirchhoff; the 1877 ...

  4. Shannon–Hartley theorem - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shannon–Hartley_theorem

    It connects Hartley's result with Shannon's channel capacity theorem in a form that is equivalent to specifying the M in Hartley's line rate formula in terms of a signal-to-noise ratio, but achieving reliability through error-correction coding rather than through reliably distinguishable pulse levels.

  5. History of physics - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_physics

    [citation needed] Aristotle's writings cover physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology. He wrote the first work which refers to that line of study as "Physics" – in the 4th century BCE, Aristotle founded the system known as Aristotelian physics.

  6. Manning formula - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manning_formula

    The Manning formula is an empirical formula estimating the average velocity of a liquid flowing in a conduit that does not completely enclose the liquid, i.e., open channel flow. However, this equation is also used for calculation of flow variables in case of flow in partially full conduits , as they also possess a free surface like that of ...

  7. Rayleigh–Jeans law - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rayleigh–Jeans_law

    This inconsistency between observations and the predictions of classical physics is commonly known as the ultraviolet catastrophe. [1] [2] Its resolution in 1900 with the derivation by Max Planck of Planck's law , which gives the correct radiation at all frequencies, was a foundational aspect of the development of quantum mechanics in the early ...

  8. Taylor's theorem - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taylor's_theorem

    For example, using Cauchy's integral formula for any positively oriented Jordan curve γ which parametrizes the boundary ∂W ⊂ U of a region W ⊂ U, one obtains expressions for the derivatives f (j) (c) as above, and modifying slightly the computation for T f (z) = f(z), one arrives at the exact formula

  9. Quantum cosmology - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_cosmology

    Quantum cosmology is the attempt in theoretical physics to develop a quantum theory of the universe.This approach attempts to answer open questions of classical physical cosmology, particularly those related to the first phases of the universe.