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  2. Exponential growth - Wikipedia

    Exponential growth is a process that increases quantity over time at an ever-increasing rate. It occurs when the instantaneous rate of change (that is, the derivative) of a quantity with respect to time is proportional to the quantity itself. Described as a function, a quantity undergoing exponential growth is an exponential function of time ...

  3. Exponential decay - Wikipedia

    Exponential decay. A quantity undergoing exponential decay. Larger decay constants make the quantity vanish much more rapidly. This plot shows decay for decay constant ( λ) of 25, 5, 1, 1/5, and 1/25 for x from 0 to 5. A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

  4. Doubling time - Wikipedia

    The doubling time is a characteristic unit (a natural unit of scale) for the exponential growth equation, and its converse for exponential decay is the half-life. As an example, Canada's net population growth was 2.7 percent in the year 2022, dividing 72 by 2.7 gives an approximate doubling time of about 27 years.

  5. Euler's formula - Wikipedia's_formula

    Euler's formula provides a means of conversion between cartesian coordinates and polar coordinates. The polar form simplifies the mathematics when used in multiplication or powers of complex numbers. Any complex number z = x + iy, and its complex conjugate, z = x − iy, can be written as. φ = arg z = atan2 (y, x).

  6. e (mathematical constant) - Wikipedia

    If f(t) is an exponential function, then the quantity = / ′ is a constant, sometimes called the time constant (it is the reciprocal of the exponential growth constant or decay constant). The time constant is the time it takes for the exponential function to increase by a factor of e : f ( t + τ ) = e f ( t ) {\displaystyle f(t+\tau )=ef(t)} .

  7. Double exponential function - Wikipedia

    A double exponential function (red curve) compared to a single exponential function (blue curve). A double exponential function is a constant raised to the power of an exponential function. The general formula is (where a >1 and b >1), which grows much more quickly than an exponential function. For example, if a = b = 10:

  8. Exponential function - Wikipedia

    Exponential functions with bases 2 and 1/2. The exponential function is a mathematical function denoted by () = ⁡ or (where the argument x is written as an exponent).Unless otherwise specified, the term generally refers to the positive-valued function of a real variable, although it can be extended to the complex numbers or generalized to other mathematical objects like matrices or Lie algebras.

  9. Euler's identity - Wikipedia's_identity

    In mathematics, Euler's identity [note 1] (also known as Euler's equation) is the equality. where. e is Euler's number, the base of natural logarithms, i is the imaginary unit, which by definition satisfies i2 = −1, and. π is pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. Euler's identity is named after the Swiss ...