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  2. Exponential growth - Wikipedia

    Exponential growth. Exponential growth is a process that increases quantity over time at an ever-increasing rate. It occurs when the instantaneous rate of change (that is, the derivative) of a quantity with respect to time is proportional to the quantity itself. Described as a function, a quantity undergoing exponential growth is an exponential ...

  3. Exponential decay - Wikipedia

    Exponential decay. A quantity undergoing exponential decay. Larger decay constants make the quantity vanish much more rapidly. This plot shows decay for decay constant ( λ) of 25, 5, 1, 1/5, and 1/25 for x from 0 to 5. A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

  4. Exponential function - Wikipedia

    Exponential functions with bases 2 and 1/2. The exponential function is a mathematical function denoted by () = ⁡ or (where the argument x is written as an exponent).Unless otherwise specified, the term generally refers to the positive-valued function of a real variable, although it can be extended to the complex numbers or generalized to other mathematical objects like matrices or Lie algebras.

  5. Doubling time - Wikipedia

    The doubling time is a characteristic unit (a natural unit of scale) for the exponential growth equation, and its converse for exponential decay is the half-life. As an example, Canada's net population growth was 2.7 percent in the year 2022, dividing 72 by 2.7 gives an approximate doubling time of about 27 years.

  6. Power law - Wikipedia

    To the right is the long tail, and to the left are the few that dominate (also known as the 80–20 rule ). In statistics, a power law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a relative change in the other quantity proportional to a power of the change, independent of the initial ...

  7. Geometric progression - Wikipedia

    greater than 1, there will be exponential growth towards positive or negative infinity (depending on the sign of the initial term). 1, the progression is a constant sequence. between −1 and 1 but not zero, there will be exponential decay towards zero (→ 0). −1, the absolute value of each term in the sequence is constant and terms ...

  8. Time constant - Wikipedia

    This behavior is referred to as a "decaying" exponential function. The time τ (tau) is referred to as the "time constant" and can be used (as in this case) to indicate how rapidly an exponential function decays. Here: t is time (generally t > 0 in control engineering) V 0 is the initial value (see "specific cases" below). Specific cases

  9. Natural logarithm - Wikipedia

    The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant e, which is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to 2.718 281 828 459. [1] The natural logarithm of x is generally written as ln x, loge x, or sometimes, if the base e is implicit, simply log x.