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  2. Key (cryptography) - Wikipedia

    Key vs password. A password is a memorized series of characters including letters, digits, and other special symbols that are used to verify identity. It is often produced by a human user or a password management software to protect personal and sensitive information or generate cryptographic keys.

  3. One-time password - Wikipedia

    Using a mathematical algorithm to generate a new password based on the previous password (OTPs are effectively a chain and must be used in a predefined order). Using a mathematical algorithm where the new password is based on a challenge (e.g., a random number chosen by the authentication server or transaction details) and/or a counter.

  4. Random number generation - Wikipedia

    Some computations making use of a random number generator can be summarized as the computation of a total or average value, such as the computation of integrals by the Monte Carlo method. For such problems, it may be possible to find a more accurate solution by the use of so-called low-discrepancy sequences, also called quasirandom numbers ...

  5. Cryptographic hash function - Wikipedia

    A common use of hashes is to store password authentication data. Rather than store the plaintext of user passwords, a controlled access system stores the hash of each user's password in a file or database. When someone requests access, the password they submit is hashed and compared with the stored value.

  6. Crypto Wars - Wikipedia

    Attempts, unofficially dubbed the "Crypto Wars", have been made by the United States (US) and allied governments to limit the public's and foreign nations' access to cryptography strong enough to thwart decryption by national intelligence agencies, especially the National Security Agency (NSA).

  7. Wikipedia:Tools - Wikipedia

    Google tools Note: Google search results can be several days or even weeks out of date. Citer for Google Books URL, DOI, ISBN, PMID, PMCID, OCLC and DOI and Google Books Citation Maker converts bare url into {} format. See also Help:Citation tools#Tools.

  8. Security token - Wikipedia

    Asynchronous password token A one-time password is generated without the use of a clock, either from a one-time pad or cryptographic algorithm. Challenge–response token Using public key cryptography, it is possible to prove possession of a private key without revealing that key. The authentication server encrypts a challenge (typically a ...

  9. Transport Layer Security - Wikipedia

    Transport Layer Security (TLS) is a cryptographic protocol designed to provide communications security over a computer network. The protocol is widely used in applications such as email, instant messaging, and voice over IP, but its use in securing HTTPS remains the most publicly visible.