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The term

**logbook**or**log book**originated with the ship's**log**, a**log**of important events in the management, operation, and navigation of a ship. It has since been applied to a variety of other uses, including: Aircraft pilots must maintain a pilot**logbook**to record their time spent flying and in a simulator. In addition, aircraft operators must ...A

**log amplifier**is an amplifier for which the output voltage V out is K times the natural**log**of the input voltage V in.This can be expressed as, = where V ref is the normalization constant in volts and K is the scale factor.For example, an audio amplifier will usually have a frequency band ranging from 20 Hz to 20 kHz and representing the entire band using a

**decade log scale**is very convenient. Typically the graph for such a representation would begin at 1 Hz (10 0 ) and go up to perhaps 100 kHz (10 5 ), to comfortably include the full audio band in a standard ...Templates are pages that are embedded (transcluded) into other pages to allow for the repetition of information.. Help:A quick guide to templates, a brief introduction on templates for beginners

Method. The

**logarithmic decrement**is defined as the natural**log**of the ratio of the amplitudes of any two successive peaks: = (+) where x(t) is the overshoot (amplitude - final value) at time t and x(t + nT) is the overshoot of the peak n periods away, where n is any integer number of successive, positive peaks.As the

**log**-transform of a**log**-normal distribution results in a normal distribution, we see that the**geometric standard deviation**is the exponentiated value of the standard deviation of the**log**-transformed values, i.e. = ( ( ())).**Tail value at risk**(TVaR), also known as tail conditional expectation (TCE) or conditional tail expectation (CTE), is a risk measure associated with the more general value at risk.**Expected shortfall**(ES) is a risk measure—a concept used in the field of financial risk measurement to evaluate the market risk or credit risk of a portfolio. The "**expected shortfall**at q% level" is the expected return on the portfolio in the worst % of cases.