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The term logbook or log book originated with the ship's log, a log of important events in the management, operation, and navigation of a ship. It has since been applied to a variety of other uses, including: Aircraft pilots must maintain a pilot logbook to record their time spent flying and in a simulator. In addition, aircraft operators must ...
A log amplifier is an amplifier for which the output voltage V out is K times the natural log of the input voltage V in.This can be expressed as, = where V ref is the normalization constant in volts and K is the scale factor.
For example, an audio amplifier will usually have a frequency band ranging from 20 Hz to 20 kHz and representing the entire band using a decade log scale is very convenient. Typically the graph for such a representation would begin at 1 Hz (10 0 ) and go up to perhaps 100 kHz (10 5 ), to comfortably include the full audio band in a standard ...
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Method. The logarithmic decrement is defined as the natural log of the ratio of the amplitudes of any two successive peaks: = (+) where x(t) is the overshoot (amplitude - final value) at time t and x(t + nT) is the overshoot of the peak n periods away, where n is any integer number of successive, positive peaks.
As the log-transform of a log-normal distribution results in a normal distribution, we see that the geometric standard deviation is the exponentiated value of the standard deviation of the log-transformed values, i.e. = ( ( ())).
Tail value at risk (TVaR), also known as tail conditional expectation (TCE) or conditional tail expectation (CTE), is a risk measure associated with the more general value at risk.
Expected shortfall (ES) is a risk measure—a concept used in the field of financial risk measurement to evaluate the market risk or credit risk of a portfolio. The "expected shortfall at q% level" is the expected return on the portfolio in the worst % of cases.