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Using a mathematical algorithm to generate a new

**password**based on the previous**password**(OTPs are effectively a chain and must be used in a predefined order). Using a mathematical algorithm where the new**password**is based on a challenge (e.g., a random number chosen by the authentication server or transaction details) and/or a counter.**Backtracking**is a class of algorithm for finding solutions to some computational problems, notably constraint satisfaction problems, that incrementally builds candidates to the solutions, and abandons a candidate ("backtracks") as soon as it determines that the candidate cannot possibly be completed to a valid solution.**Random number generation**is a process by which, often by means of a random number**generator**(RNG), a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by random chance is generated. This means that the particular outcome sequence will contain some patterns detectable in hindsight but unpredictable to foresight.**Bitwarden**is a free/freemium open-source**password**management service that stores sensitive information such as website credentials in an encrypted vault. The platform offers a variety of client applications including a web interface, desktop applications, browser extensions, mobile apps, and a command-line interface.Synchronous dynamic

**password**token A timer is used to rotate through various combinations produced by a cryptographic algorithm. The token and the authentication server must have synchronized clocks. Asynchronous**password**token A one-time**password**is generated without the use of a clock, either from a one-time pad or cryptographic algorithm.The salt randomizes the output of the

**password**hash, making it impossible for an adversary to store tables of passwords and precomputed hash values to which the**password**hash digest can be compared. The output of a**password**hash function can also be used as a cryptographic key.The notation Np is Ćukasiewicz notation.. In set theory, is also used to indicate 'not in the set of': is the set of all members of U that are not members of A.. Regardless how it is notated or symbolized, the

**negation**can be read as "it is not the case that P", "not that P", or usually more simply as "not P".The

**bar mitzvah attack**is an attack on the SSL/TLS protocols that exploits the use of the RC4 cipher with weak keys for that cipher. While this affects only the first hundred or so bytes of only the very small fraction of connections that happen to use weak keys, it allows significant compromise of user security, for example by allowing the interception of**password**information which could then ...