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**password**managers can automatically create strong passwords using a cryptographically secure random**password generator**, as well as calculating the entropy of the generated**password**. A good**password**manager will provide resistance against attacks such as key logging, clipboard logging and various other memory spying techniques. See alsoUsing a mathematical algorithm to generate a new

**password**based on the previous**password**(OTPs are effectively a chain and must be used in a predefined order). Using a mathematical algorithm where the new**password**is based on a challenge (e.g., a random number chosen by the authentication server or transaction details) and/or a counter.Key vs

**password**. A**password**is a memorized series of characters including letters, digits, and other special symbols that are used to verify identity. It is often produced by a human user or a**password**management software to protect personal and sensitive information or generate cryptographic keys.**Random number generation**is a process by which, often by means of a random number**generator**(RNG), a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by random chance is generated. This means that the particular outcome sequence will contain some patterns detectable in hindsight but unpredictable to foresight.Common PRNG (pseudorandom number

**generator**) — preferably cryptographically secure — in both transmitter and receiver; Transmitter sends 'next' code in sequence; Receiver compares 'next' to its calculated 'next' code. A typical implementation compares within the next 256 codes in case receiver missed some transmitted keypresses.C. CDMF; Ciphertext stealing; Common Scrambling Algorithm; CryptGenRandom; Crypto++; Cryptographic agility; Cryptographically secure pseudorandom number

**generator**In cryptography, PBKDF1 and

**PBKDF2**(**Password**-Based Key Derivation Function 1 and 2) are key derivation functions with a sliding computational cost, ...For example you cannot use

**bcrypt**to derive a 512-bit key from a**password**. At the same time, algorithms like pbkdf2, scrypt, and argon2 are**password**-based key derivation functions - where the output is then used for the purpose of**password**hashing rather than just key derivation.**Password**hashing generally needs to complete < 1000 ms.