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The marginal cost of public funds ( MCF) is a concept in public finance which measures the loss incurred by society in raising additional revenues to finance government spending due to the distortion of resource allocation caused by taxation. 
In 2010 national governments spent an average of $2,376 per person, while the average for the world's 20 largest economies (in terms of GDP) was $16,110 per person. Norway and Sweden expended the most at $40,908 and $26,760 per capita respectively. The federal government of the United States spent $11,041 per person.
Almost every major country that has a publicly funded healthcare system also has a parallel private system for patients who hold private medical insurance or themselves pay for treatment.  In those states, those able to pay have access to treatment and comforts that may not be available to those dependent upon the state system.
e. A public–private partnership ( PPP, 3P, or P3) is a long-term arrangement between a government and private sector institutions.   Typically, it involves private capital financing government projects and services up-front, and then drawing revenues from taxpayers and/or users over the course of the PPP contract. 
Money portal. v. t. e. A shadow price is the monetary value assigned to an abstract or intangible commodity which is not traded in the marketplace.  This often takes the form of an externality. Shadow prices are also known as the recalculation of known market prices in order to account for the presence of distortionary market instruments (e ...
Franklin Resources, Inc. is an American multinational holding company that, together with its subsidiaries, is referred to as Franklin Templeton; it is a global investment firm founded in New York City in 1947 as Franklin Distributors, Inc. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol BEN, in honor of Benjamin Franklin ...