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**Random number generation**is a process by which, often by means of a**random**number**generator**(RNG), a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by**random**chance is generated. This means that the particular outcome sequence will contain some patterns detectable in hindsight but unpredictable to foresight.**Backtracking**is a class of algorithm for finding solutions to some computational problems, notably constraint satisfaction problems, that incrementally builds candidates to the solutions, and abandons a candidate ("backtracks") as soon as it determines that the candidate cannot possibly be completed to a valid solution.Using a mathematical algorithm to generate a new

**password**based on the previous**password**(OTPs are effectively a chain and must be used in a predefined order). Using a mathematical algorithm where the new**password**is based on a challenge (e.g., a**random**number chosen by the authentication server or transaction details) and/or a counter.**Bitwarden**is a free/freemium open-source**password**management service that stores sensitive information such as website credentials in an encrypted vault. The platform offers a variety of client applications including a web interface, desktop applications, browser extensions, mobile apps, and a command-line interface.The authentication server encrypts a challenge (typically a

**random**number, or at least data with some**random**parts) with a public key; the device proves it possesses a copy of the matching private key by providing the decrypted challenge. Time-synchronized one-time passwords change constantly at a set time interval; e.g., once per minute.The

**bar mitzvah attack**is an attack on the SSL/TLS protocols that exploits the use of the RC4 cipher with weak keys for that cipher. While this affects only the first hundred or so bytes of only the very small fraction of connections that happen to use weak keys, it allows significant compromise of user security, for example by allowing the interception of**password**information which could then ...**Cryptography**, or cryptology (from Ancient Greek: κρυπτός, romanized: kryptós "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "to write", or -λογία-logia, "study", respectively), is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of adversarial behavior.The notation Np is Łukasiewicz notation.. In set theory, is also used to indicate 'not in the set of': is the set of all members of U that are not members of A.. Regardless how it is notated or symbolized, the

**negation**can be read as "it is not the case that P", "not that P", or usually more simply as "not P".