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2. ### Random number generation - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random_number_generation

Random number generation is a process by which, often by means of a random number generator (RNG), a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by random chance is generated. This means that the particular outcome sequence will contain some patterns detectable in hindsight but unpredictable to foresight.

3. ### Backtracking - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backtracking

Backtracking is a class of algorithm for finding solutions to some computational problems, notably constraint satisfaction problems, that incrementally builds candidates to the solutions, and abandons a candidate ("backtracks") as soon as it determines that the candidate cannot possibly be completed to a valid solution.

4. ### RSA SecurID - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSA_SecurID

The RSA SecurID authentication mechanism consists of a "token"—either hardware (e.g. a key fob) or software (a soft token)—which is assigned to a computer user and which creates an authentication code at fixed intervals (usually 60 seconds) using a built-in clock and the card's factory-encoded almost random key (known as the "seed").

5. ### One-time password - Wikipedia

Using a mathematical algorithm to generate a new password based on the previous password (OTPs are effectively a chain and must be used in a predefined order). Using a mathematical algorithm where the new password is based on a challenge (e.g., a random number chosen by the authentication server or transaction details) and/or a counter.

6. ### Bitwarden - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitwarden

Bitwarden is a free/freemium open-source password management service that stores sensitive information such as website credentials in an encrypted vault. The platform offers a variety of client applications including a web interface, desktop applications, browser extensions, mobile apps, and a command-line interface.

7. ### Security token - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Security_token

The authentication server encrypts a challenge (typically a random number, or at least data with some random parts) with a public key; the device proves it possesses a copy of the matching private key by providing the decrypted challenge. Time-synchronized one-time passwords change constantly at a set time interval; e.g., once per minute.

8. ### Bar mitzvah attack - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bar_mitzvah_attack

The bar mitzvah attack is an attack on the SSL/TLS protocols that exploits the use of the RC4 cipher with weak keys for that cipher. While this affects only the first hundred or so bytes of only the very small fraction of connections that happen to use weak keys, it allows significant compromise of user security, for example by allowing the interception of password information which could then ...

9. ### Cryptography - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography

Cryptography, or cryptology (from Ancient Greek: κρυπτός, romanized: kryptós "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "to write", or -λογία-logia, "study", respectively), is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of adversarial behavior.