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Random number generation is a process by which, often by means of a random number generator (RNG), a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by random chance is generated. This means that the particular outcome sequence will contain some patterns detectable in hindsight but unpredictable to foresight.
Common PRNG (pseudorandom number generator) — preferably cryptographically secure — in both transmitter and receiver; Transmitter sends 'next' code in sequence; Receiver compares 'next' to its calculated 'next' code. A typical implementation compares within the next 256 codes in case receiver missed some transmitted keypresses.
Key size is the number of bits in the key defined by the algorithm. This size defines the upper bound of the cryptographic algorithm’s security. The larger the key size, the longer it will take before the key is compromised by a brute force attack.
Backtracking is a class of algorithm for finding solutions to some computational problems, notably constraint satisfaction problems, that incrementally builds candidates to the solutions, and abandons a candidate ("backtracks") as soon as it determines that the candidate cannot possibly be completed to a valid solution.
This implies random key choice to force attackers to spend as much effort as possible; this is very difficult in principle and in practice as well. As a general rule, any software except a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (CSPRNG) should be avoided. See also. Transport Layer Security pre-shared key ciphersuites (TLS-PSK)
Using a mathematical algorithm to generate a new password based on the previous password (OTPs are effectively a chain and must be used in a predefined order). Using a mathematical algorithm where the new password is based on a challenge (e.g., a random number chosen by the authentication server or transaction details) and/or a counter.
Bitwarden is a free/freemium open-source password management service that stores sensitive information such as website credentials in an encrypted vault. The platform offers a variety of client applications including a web interface, desktop applications, browser extensions, mobile apps, and a command-line interface.
The salt is typically a random value. The bcrypt function uses these inputs to compute a 24-byte (192-bit) hash. The final output of the bcrypt function is a string of the form: $2<a/b/x/y>$[cost]$[22 character salt][31 character hash] For example, with input password abc123xyz, cost 12, and a random salt, the output of bcrypt is the string