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Random number generation is a process by which, often by means of a random number generator (RNG), a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by random chance is generated. This means that the particular outcome sequence will contain some patterns detectable in hindsight but unpredictable to foresight.
Common PRNG (pseudorandom number generator) — preferably cryptographically secure — in both transmitter and receiver; Transmitter sends 'next' code in sequence; Receiver compares 'next' to its calculated 'next' code. A typical implementation compares within the next 256 codes in case receiver missed some transmitted keypresses.
Key size is the number of bits in the key defined by the algorithm. This size defines the upper bound of the cryptographic algorithm’s security. The larger the key size, the longer it will take before the key is compromised by a brute force attack.
This would disclose the fact that the two accounts have the same password, allowing anyone who knows one of the account's passwords to access the other account. By salting the passwords with two random characters, even if two accounts use the same password, no one can discover this just by reading hashes. Unix implementations 1970s–1980s
Most password managers can automatically create strong passwords using a cryptographically secure random password generator, as well as calculating the entropy of the generated password. A good password manager will provide resistance against attacks such as key logging, clipboard logging and various other memory spying techniques. See also
Random password generator; Randomness extractor; Randomness merger; RC algorithm; Residual block termination; Ring learning with errors key exchange; Rip van Winkle ...
This implies random key choice to force attackers to spend as much effort as possible; this is very difficult in principle and in practice as well. As a general rule, any software except a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (CSPRNG) should be avoided. See also. Transport Layer Security pre-shared key ciphersuites (TLS-PSK)
PBKDF2 has an interesting property when using HMAC as its pseudo-random function. It is possible to trivially construct any number of different password pairs with collisions within each pair.  If a supplied password is longer than the block size of the underlying HMAC hash function, the password is first pre-hashed into a digest, and that ...