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  2. Amplitude - Wikipedia

    Peak amplitude & semi-amplitude. Symmetric periodic waves, like sine waves, square waves or triangle waves peak amplitude and semi amplitude are the same.. Peak amplitude. In audio system measurements, telecommunications and others where the measurand is a signal that swings above and below a reference value but is not sinusoidal, peak amplitude is often used.

  3. Complement (set theory) - Wikipedia

    In set theory, the complement of a set A, often denoted by A c (or A′), are the elements not in A.. When all sets under consideration are considered to be subsets of a given set U, the absolute complement of A is the set of elements in U that are not in A.

  4. Lumped-element model - Wikipedia

    The lumped-element model (also called lumped-parameter model, or lumped-component model) simplifies the description of the behaviour of spatially distributed physical systems into a topology consisting of discrete entities that approximate the behaviour of the distributed system under certain assumptions.

  5. Kinetic isotope effect - Wikipedia

    The magnitudes of such secondary isotope effects at the α-carbon are largely determined by the C α-H(D) vibrations.For an S N 1 reaction, since the carbon is converted into an sp 2 hybridized carbenium ion during the transition state for the rate-determining step with an increase in C α-H(D) bond order, an inverse kinetic isotope effect would be expected if only the stretching vibrations ...

  6. Chemical element - Wikipedia

    In 1661, Robert Boyle proposed his theory of corpuscularism which favoured the analysis of matter as constituted by irreducible units of matter (atoms) and, choosing to side with neither Aristotle's view of the four elements nor Paracelsus' view of three fundamental elements, left open the question of the number of elements.

  7. Sandwich theory - Wikipedia

    Sandwich theory describes the behaviour of a beam, plate, or shell which consists of three layers—two facesheets and one core. The most commonly used sandwich theory is linear and is an extension of first order beam theory .

  8. Line array - Wikipedia

    A line array is a loudspeaker system that is made up of a number of usually identical loudspeaker elements mounted in a line and fed in phase, to create a near-line source of sound. The distance between adjacent drivers is close enough that they constructively interfere with each other to send sound waves farther than traditional horn-loaded ...

  9. Piaget's theory of cognitive development - Wikipedia's_theory_of...

    Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. It was originated by the Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget (1896–1980). The theory deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans gradually come to acquire, construct, and use it.